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East African nation Tanzania, formally the United Republic of Tanzania, is part of the African Great Lakes area and is located in the East African subregion. Kenya borders it on the north, Uganda on the northeast and the Comoro Islands and the Indian Ocean on the east. It shares boundaries with Mozambique and Malawi on the south, Zambia on the southwest and Uganda on the west. Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo border it on the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's tallest peak, is located in the country of Tanzania, in the northeastern region.

Tanzania has a population of 56.31 million people, according to the United Nations, which is slightly smaller than South Africa and makes it the second most populated nation wholly south of the Equator. There are around 120 ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups represented in the population. Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic whose formal capital city has been Dodoma since 1996, where the president's office, the National Assembly, and other government departments are housed. Tanzania is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and is a signatory to the United Nations. Most government offices remain in Dar es Salaam, which is also the country's biggest city, key port, and most important economic centre. Dar es Salaam was formerly the country's capital, and it remains so today. When it comes to political parties, Tanzania is a one-party state, with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in control.

Tanzania's northern and eastern regions are hilly and highly wooded, and here is where Mount Kilimanjaro can be found. Tanzania has a portion of three of Africa's Great Lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi, and Lake Malawi. Lake Victoria, Africa's biggest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, both of which are recognised for their distinct kinds of fish, are located to the north and west of the country. Lake Malawi is located in the southern part of the country. The eastern coast is hot and humid, and the Zanzibar Archipelago lies nearby offshore, making it a popular destination. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is the biggest marine protected area on the island of Zanzibar. The Kalambo Falls, which are situated on the Kalambo River near the Zambian border, are the second tallest unbroken waterfall in Africa and are the second highest waterfall in the world.

Despite the fact that Christianity is the most widely practised religion in Tanzania, there are significant Muslim and Animist minority. Tanzania is the most linguistically varied nation in East Africa, with more than 100 distinct languages spoken there. Even though Swahili is the national language, the country does not have an official language that is de jure recognised as such. Swahili is used in legislative debates, in lower judicial proceedings, and as a basic school language of instruction in Tanzania. English is used in international trade, diplomacy, higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education in Tanzania. Although the Tanzanian government plans to discontinue English as the primary language of instruction, it will continue to be offered as an optional course in secondary and higher education. In Tanzania, around 10% of the population speaks Swahili as a first language, with up to 90% of the population speaking it as a second language.