Kenya, formally the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a nation in Eastern Africa that is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. When measured in square kilometres (224,081 square miles), Kenya is the world's 48th biggest nation in terms of total land area. Kenya is the 29th most populated nation in the world, according to the latest recent census, with a population of more than 47.6 million people. Nairobi is Kenya's capital and biggest city, whereas Mombasa, the country's oldest city and first capital, is the country's seaside metropolis. Located on the shores of Lake Victoria, Kisumu Metropolis is the country's third-largest city and an inland port. Nakuru and Eldoret are two more prominent urban centres in the region. Kenya will be the third-largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2020, behind only Nigeria and South Africa, according to the World Bank. East Africa's most populous country, Kenya has borders with South Sudan to the northwest, Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to its west, Tanzania to its south, and the Indian Ocean to its southeast. Kenya's geography, climate, and population are pretty varied, ranging from cold ice mountain tops (Batian, Nelion, and Point Lenana on Mount Kenya) with vast surrounding forests, wildlife, and agriculturally productive regions to temperate climates in western and rift valley regions and dry, less fertile arid and semi-arid areas, as well as absolute deserts, to temperate climates in northern and southern Kenya (Chalbi Desert and Nyiri Desert).
According to archaeological dating of accompanying artefacts and skeleton material, Cushitic speakers originally arrived in Kenya's lowlands between 3,200 and 1,300 BC, during a period known as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic. Cushitic speakers were the first people to speak the language. Approximately 500 BC, Nilotic-speaking pastoralists from present-day South Sudan began migrating into Kenya, where they became the ancestors of Kenya's Nilotic speakers. Between 250 BC and 500 AD, Bantu people colonised Kenya's coast and interior, establishing themselves as a maritime civilization. European interaction with Kenya started in 1500 AD with the Portuguese Empire, while serious colonisation of the country did not begin until the nineteenth century, with European exploration of the country's interior during the nineteenth century. Kenya evolved from a protectorate founded by the British Empire in 1895, followed by the establishment of the Kenya Colony in 1920, which formed the basis of modern-day Kenya. A series of disagreements between the United Kingdom and the colony culminated in the Mau Mau movement, which started in 1952 and culminated in the country's declaration of independence in 1963. Kenya has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations since gaining independence in 1963. The current constitution, which was enacted in 2010, replaced the previous constitution, which was established in 1963.
Kenia is a representative democracy is a system republic, in which elected officials serve as representatives of their constituents and the president serves as the nation's chief executive and head of state. Kenya is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the International Criminal Court, and several other international organisations and institutions. Kenya is a lower-middle-income country with a gross national income (GNI) of 1,460. Kenya's economy is the biggest in northern and northeastern Africa, and its capital, Nairobi, serves as a significant regional economic centre for the area. Agriculture is the most important industry; traditional cash crops like as tea and coffee are grown, but fresh flowers are a rapidly expanding export. Service industries such as tourism are also important economic drivers in their own right. Despite the fact that Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade group, several international trade organisations classify it as being a part of the Greater Horn of Africa. Africa is Kenya's greatest export market, followed by the European Union as the country's second largest.