South Africa, formally the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost nation in Africa and the continent's most southern country. It is the world's 23rd-most populated country, with a population of more than 60 million people, and it has a land area of 1,221,037 square kilometres (471,445 square miles). South Africa has three capital cities: Pretoria, which serves as the executive branch, Bloemfontein, which serves as the judicial branch, and Cape Town, which serves as the legislative branch. Approximately 80% of South Africans are of Black African descent, and they are split into a number of ethnic groups that speak a variety of African languages. Its surviving population is made up of the biggest populations of European (White South Africans), Asian (Indian South Africans and Chinese South Africans), and Multiracial (Coloured South Africans) heritage found anywhere in the world, including the United States.
It is bordered on the south by the Southern African coastline, which stretches along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; on the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe and on the west by the enclaved country of Lesotho. It is the southernmost country on the continental of the Old World, as well as the most populated country completely south of the equator. South Africa is a biodiversity hotspot, home to a diverse range of distinct biomes as well as a diverse range of plant and animal species.