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Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern part of Belgium, and it is one of the country's communities, regions, and linguistic areas. It is also the country's most populous region. However, there are many overlapping meanings, including those that are linked to culture, language, politics, and history, as well as those that include adjacent nations at various periods. Fleming is the demonym for the people of Flanders, while Flemish is the adjective for those who live in Flanders. The City of Brussels serves as the official capital of Flanders, despite the fact that the Brussels-Capital Region is governed by a separate regional administration. The government of Flanders is solely responsible for the elements of Flanders life in Brussels that are centred on the community, such as Flemish culture and education.

Despite the fact that it is not the most populous region of Belgium, Flanders has the highest population density (68.2 percent) when Brussels is taken into consideration. Flanders and the multilingual Brussels area are home to 7,797,611 of Belgium's total population of 11,431,406 people. Only approximately 8% of the population of Brussels considers themselves to be Flemish, with the remainder identifying as French-speaking. There are five provinces in modern-day Flemish territory, excluding the capital of Brussels.

Geographically, Flanders is mostly flat, with a short stretch of shoreline on the North Sea extending into the province. Much of Flanders is agriculturally productive and highly inhabited, with a population density of 483/km2 (1,250/sq mi) and an agricultural productivity of 12%. On the southwest coast, it has a border with the French department of Nord; on the north and east, it shares a border with the Dutch provinces of Zeeland, North Brabant, and Limburg; and on the south, it shares a border with the Belgian provinces of Hainaut, Walloon Brabant, and Li├Ęge. The Brussels Capital Region is a multilingual enclave inside the Flemish Region that is legally recognised by the Belgian government. Flanders has its own exclaves: Voeren in the east is sandwiched between Wallonia and the Netherlands, while Baarle-Hertog in the north is made up of 22 exclaves that are bordered by the Netherlands.