Belgium is a nation in Western Europe that is formally known as the Kingdom of Belgium. Its northern and eastern borders are shared with the Netherlands, while its eastern and southern borders are shared with Germany, while its western boundary is shared with France. Its western border is shared with the North Sea. This country has a population of more than 11.5 million people and covers a land area of 30,689 km2 (11,849 sq mi). With a population density of 376 people per square kilometre (970 people per square mile), it is the 22nd most densely populated country in the world and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe. Brussels is the country's capital and biggest city; other important cities include Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège, Bruges, Namur, and Leuven, among others.
Belgium is a sovereign state with a parliamentary system that is governed by a federal constitutional monarchy. Its institutional system is complicated, and it is organised on the basis of geographical and language distinctions as well. It is split into three largely autonomous areas: the Flemish Region (Flanders) in the north, the Walloon Region (Wallonia) in the south, and the Brussels-Capital Region in the middle. The Flemish Region (Flanders) is the largest and most populous of the three regions. Brussel is the smallest and most highly inhabited area in Belgium, as well as the wealthiest region in terms of GDP per capita. It is also the most prosperous region in the country.
Belgium is divided into two major linguistic communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which accounts for approximately 60 percent of the population, and the French-speaking Community, which accounts for approximately 40 percent of the population. The Flemish Community is the largest of the two communities. In the East Cantons, there is a tiny German-speaking community with a population of about one percent. The Brussels-Capital Region is officially bilingual in French and Dutch, but French is the language of instruction in the majority of schools. Belgium's linguistic variety, as well as the political tensions that have resulted from it, are mirrored in its complicated governance structure, which is comprised of six distinct administrations.