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The Netherlands, often known as Holland, is a nation in Western Europe with possessions in the Caribbean that is part of the European Union. The Kingdom of the Netherlands is comprised of four component nations, the biggest of which is the Netherlands. The Netherlands is an european country that consists of twelve provinces that share borders with Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, as well as marine boundaries with neighbouring nations and the United Kingdom in the North Sea. In the Caribbean, it is comprised of three special municipalities: the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, which are all part of the Netherlands. The official language of the nation is Dutch, with West Frisian as a subsidiary official language in the province of Friesland, and English and Papiamento as secondary official languages in the Caribbean Netherlands. The country's capital is Rotterdam, and its largest city is Amsterdam. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised regional languages (spoken in the east and southeast, respectively), whereas Dutch Sign Language, Sinte Romani, and Yiddish are recognised non-territorial languages (spoken in the north and northeast, respectively).

Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht are the four most populous cities in the Netherlands, respectively. Although Amsterdam serves as the country's most populated city and titular capital, the country's legislative, executive, and judicial branches are all based in The Hague, the country's administrative centre. After China and Singapore, the Port of Rotterdam is the busiest seaport in Europe and the busiest in any country outside East Asia and Southeast Asia, according to the International Maritime Organization. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands and the third busiest airport in Europe, according to the International Air Transport Association. The nation is a founding member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the G10, NATO, the OECD, and the World Trade Organization, as well as a member of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union, among other organisations. A number of intergovernmental organisations and international courts are based in The Hague, which has been called "the world's legal capital" because of its position as the home of so many of them.