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Located in Belgium, Brussels is a territory made up of 19 municipalities, the largest of which is the City of Brussels, which serves as the nation's capital. Located in the heart of Belgium, the Brussels-Capital Region is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but it is distinct both from Flemish Region (in which it forms an enclave) and the Walloon Region. The Brussels-Capital Region includes the cities of Brussels, Antwerp, and Ghent. Belgian GDP per capita is highest in Brussels, which is also the most densely inhabited and wealthiest area. It has a population of approximately 1.2 million people and spans a land area of 162 km2 (63 sq mi), which is comparatively modest compared to the other two areas. Brussels has a population of approximately 2.5 million people in a metropolitan area five times bigger than New York City, making it the most populous city in the country. A vast conurbation stretching from Ghent through Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant with a population of more than 5 million people encompasses the city as well.

Brussels, which was historically a Dutch-speaking city, began to transition to French in the late nineteenth century. Brussels-Capital Region is officially bilingual in French and Dutch, even though French is now the de facto national language, with about 80 percent of the population able to communicate in the language. Also growing more bilingual is the city of Brussels. English is spoken as a second language by almost a third of the population, and many migrants and expatriates are fluent in a variety of other languages.

Belgium's capital is well-known for its food and gastronomy, as well as for its historical and architectural monuments, some of which are designated as UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites. Historische landmarks like as the Grand Place and Manneken Pis, as well as cultural institutions like La Monnaie/De Munt and the Museums of Art and History, are among the city's most popular attractions. Brussels is also known as the "Capital of the Comic Strip" because of the lengthy history of Belgian comics.