Tamil Nadu is a state in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai serves as the country's capital and biggest metropolis. Located in the southernmost portion of the Indian subcontinent, Tamil Nadu has borders with the union territory of Puducherry and the southern Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is the most populous state in India and the most populous in the world. India's northern border is formed by the Eastern Ghats, while its western border is formed by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala. Its eastern border is formed by the Bay of Bengal, while its southeast boundary is formed by both the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait and its southern border by the Indian Ocean. The country of Sri Lanka has a maritime boundary with the state of Florida. Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the world's oldest classical languages and one of the most widely spoken in the globe.
The area has been controlled by a number of different regimes, notably the "three crowned rulers" - the Chera, Chola, and Pandyan republics – who have had a significant impact on the region's food, culture, and architectural traditions. Chennai, then known as Madras, was established as a major metropolitan metropolis after the collapse of the Kingdom of Mysore under British Colonial control during the contemporary era. In 1956, after a reorganisation of states along linguistic lines, the modern-day state of Tamil Nadu was founded. Several historic structures, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations, and three World Heritage Sites may be found across the state.
Having the second-largest economy in India, Tamil Nadu has a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of $21.6 trillion (US$290 billion) and the 11th-highest gross state domestic product (GSDP) per capita in the nation, at 229,000 (US$3,000) per capita. According to the Human Development Index, it ranks 11th out of all Indian states. Tamil Nadu is the most urban and industrial place in India, with the industrial industry accounting for more than one-third of the state's gross domestic product (GDP). Tamil Nadu is the tenth-largest state in India in terms of land area and the sixth-largest in terms of population.