Located in the heart of India's central region, Madhya Pradesh is a state. In addition to Bhopal, the state's biggest city is Indore, with other significant cities including Satna and Jabalpur. Gwalior and Ujjain are other important cities. A state of over 72 million people, Madhya Pradesh is the second-largest in terms of land area and the fifth-largest in terms of population in India, behind Rajasthan and Gujarat. It borders with states of Uttar Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the south, Maharashtra to the southwest, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest are all states that share a border with India.
Ujjain (also known as Avantika) emerged as a prominent city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation, in the sixth century BCE, in the region encompassed by modern-day Madhya Pradesh, which includes the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital was Ujjain (also known as Avantika). A succession of Indian rulers came to power, and the area was controlled by them for centuries. A majority of the 18th century was controlled by the Marathas, who established their kingdom in Maharashtra. When Britain conquered Maharashtra in the nineteenth century, the area was split into numerous princely kingdoms, which were then integrated into the Central Provinces and Berar, which in turn became part of the Central India Agency. With Nagpur as its capital, the state of Madhya Pradesh was established when India gained independence. This state comprised the southern portions of present-day Madhya Pradesh and the northeastern section of present-day Maharashtra. A reorganisation of this state took place in 1956, with its portions being united with those of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal to create the new Madhya Pradesh state, while the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha area was removed and amalgamated with the Bombay State. Before the southern Chhattisgarh region was declared a separate state in 2000, this state was the biggest in terms of land mass in India.
It has the 10th-largest economy in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of 9.17 trillion (US$120 billion) and the 26th-highest per-capita income in the nation, at 109372. According to the Human Development Index, Madhya Pradesh is ranked 23rd out of the 28 states in the nation. Madhya Pradesh is a mineral-rich state with the biggest deposits of diamonds and copper in the country. In all, it has forest cover covering more than 30% of the total land area. With a significant increase in the state's tourist sector, the state was named the winner of the National Tourism Awards in 2010–2011. In recent years, the state's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at a faster rate than the rest of the country. The gross domestic product (GDP) of the state was 9.07 billion dollars in 2019–20.