With the Sinai Peninsula serving as a land bridge between Africa's northeastern corner and Asia's southwestern corner, Egypt, formally the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental nation straddling both continents. In the Mediterranean region, Egypt is bordered to the northeast by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel, to the east by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, to the south by Sudan, and also to the west by Libya. Jordan is across the Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia is over the Red Sea, and Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus are across the Mediterranean, but none of them have a physical boundary with Egypt.
Egypt has one of the most extensive historical records of any nation, dating back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE in the Nile Delta. A cradle of civilization, Egypt saw some of the first advances in writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion, and central government. It is considered to be the birth of civilization. It is this heritage that has left iconic structures like as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx in addition to ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, all of which are still important points of scholarly and public interest today. In Egypt, the country's long and rich cultural history is an essential element of its national identity, which reflects the country's unique transcontinental position, which encompasses all of the Mediterranean, Middle East, and North African regions at the same time. The nation of Egypt was an early and major centre of Christianity, but it was fully Islamised by the seventh century and is a mainly Muslim country, while it has a considerable Christian minority population.
Egypt is a developing nation, with a Human Development Index rating of 116th out of 188 countries. Politically, on the other hand, it is seen as a regional force in North Africa, the Medium East, and the Muslim world, as well as a middle power across the globe. Egypt has a diverse economy that is the second-largest in Africa, the 33rd-largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, and the 20th-largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). Egypt is a founding signatory to the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab States, the African Union, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the World Youth Forum. Egypt is also a founding member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation.