Israel, often known as the State of Israel, is a nation in Western Asia that was established in 1948. It is located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea, and it shares borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the north of the country, Jordan to a east, the Palestine regions of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Its capital is Tel Aviv, which is the largest city in the country. Tel Aviv serves as the country's economic and technical hub, while Jerusalem serves as the country's seat of government and declared capital, despite the fact that the state's authority over the city is only partially recognised internationally.
In Israel, scientists have discovered evidence of the first known migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes have been found at archaeological sites dating back to the Middle Bronze Age, whereas the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah formed during the Iron Age, according to archaeological evidence. Around the year 720 BCE, the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed the nation of Israel. Judah was subsequently overrun by the Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenistic empires, although it had previously existed as Jewish independent regions under the control of the Jewish people. In the aftermath of the successful Maccabean Revolt, an independent Hasmonean kingdom emerged by 110 BCE. By 63 BCE, however, the kingdom had become a client state of the Roman Republic, which subsequently established the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE and established the Roman province of Judea in 6 CE. It was only after the failed Jewish uprisings that Judea became a Roman province, with extensive devastation, the deportation of the Jewish people, and the renaming of the area from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina that the region became known as Syria Palaestina. A certain amount of Jewish presence in the area has survived throughout the ages to varying degrees. After being captured by Arabs from the Byzantine Empire in the seventh century CE, the Levant was under Muslim rule until the First Crusade in 1099, which was followed by the conquest of the Levant by the Ayyubids in 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt expanded its dominance throughout the Levant during the 13th century until it was defeated by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, until it was defeated by the Ottoman Empire. When Jews had a national awakening in the nineteenth century, the Zionist movement was founded, and thousands of them were persecuted and expelled from their homelands.