Jordan is a nation in Western Asia that is formally known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It is located on the east bank of the Jordan River, at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, inside the Levant area, and is the largest city in the region. Jordan is surrounded by Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Israel, and the West Bank of the Palestinian Territories (West Bank). Located in the extreme south-west, the nation has a coastline on the Red Sea that stretches for 26 kilometres (16 miles) and is bordered by the Dead Sea on three sides. Amman is the capital and largest city of Jordan, as well as the country's economic, political, and cultural nerve centre.
Modern-day People have lived in Jordan since the Paleolithic era, according to archaeological evidence. Ammon, Moab, and Edom were the three stable kingdoms that established towards the conclusion of the Bronze Age in that region. The Nabataean Empire, the Persian Empire, the Roman Empire, the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid Caliphates, and the Ottoman Empire were among the later rulers. After the Great Ongoing Conflict against the Ottomans in 1916, which occurred during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France, resulting in the establishment of the modern state of Turkey. Founded in 1921 by Abdullah I, the Hashemite ruler who was also the emir, the Emirate of Transjordan was designated by the United Kingdom as an official protectorate. When Jordan became an independent country in 1946, it was properly known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. However, after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967, the country was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which was officially recognised in 1949. Jordan abandoned its claim to the land in 1988 and became the second Arab country after Egypt to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994, marking the end of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Both the Arab League and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation were founded by Jordan, which is a founder member of both organisations. Although the sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, the king retains extensive administrative and legislative authority in his own right.
Jordan is a semi-arid nation with a land area of 89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi) and a population of 10 million people, making it the eleventh-most populated country in the Arab world. Jordan has a population of 10 million people and is the eleventh-most populous country in the Arab world. The bulk of the nation's population, or around 95 percent, is Sunni Muslim, with a small indigenous Christian minority in the country. As a result of its position as a "oasis of stability" amid the volatile Middle East, Jordan has received several accolades in recent years. It has mostly escaped the devastation caused by the turmoil that swept across the area during the Arab Spring in 2010. Beginning in 1948, Jordan has welcomed migrants from a variety of neighbouring nations that are engulfed in violence. According to a 2015 census, there are around 2.1 million Palestinian refugees and 1.4 million Syrian refugees living in Jordan. Thousands of Iraqi Christians who have fled persecution by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) have found safety in the kingdom. Even though Jordan has continued to welcome migrants, the current enormous inflow of Syrian refugees has put a significant strain on the country's resources and infrastructure.
Jordan is ranked 102nd in the Human Development Index, and its economy is classified as upper middle income. The Jordanian economy, while being one of the smallest in the area, is appealing to international investors due to the availability of a highly qualified workforce. Because of its well-developed health sector, the country is a popular tourist destination as well as a destination for medical tourism. Despite this, a scarcity of natural resources, a massive influx of migrants, and political unrest in the area have impeded economic development.