Colombia, formally the Republic of Colombia, is a South American nation located in the region of the Americas. Its northern border is formed by the Caribbean Sea, its western border by Panama, its southern border by Ecuador and Peru, its eastern border by Venezuela, its southeast border with Brazil, and its western border with the Pacific Ocean. Colombia is divided into 32 departments, as well as the Capital District of Bogotá, which is the country's most populous city. It has a population of 50 million people and a land area of 1,141,748 square kilometres (440,831 square miles). It has a population of 50 million people. A variety of Amerindian civilizations, European colonisation, African slaves, and immigration from Europe and the Middle East have all had an impact on Colombia's rich cultural history. Spanish is the official language of the country, although it is also spoken in more than 70 other languages.
From as early as 12,000 BCE, Colombia has been inhabited by numerous indigenous peoples, including the Muisca, the Quimbaya, and the Tairona, among others. The Spanish arrived in La Guajira for the first time in 1499 and colonised portions of the area by the mid-16th century, creating the New Kingdom of Granada with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. When the United Provinces of New Granada declared independence from the Spanish Empire in 1819, they were known as the United Provinces of New Granada. The new country experimented with federalism as the Granadine Federation (1858), then as the United States of Colombia (1863), until ultimately declaring itself the Republic of Colombia in 1886, after which it became a federal republic. Panama declared its independence in 1903, resulting in the current boundaries of Colombia. Asymmetric low-intensity military warfare and political violence have been ongoing in the nation since the 1960s, and both have become more severe during the 1990s, according to the United Nations. Significant improvements in security, stability, and rule of law have occurred since 2005, as well as exceptional economic growth and development, according to the World Bank.