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Peru, formally the Republic of Peru, is a nation in western South America that is part of the Andean region. It is surrounded on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. It is also bounded on the north by the Andes Mountains and on the east by the Andes Mountains. A megadiverse nation, Peru has habitats ranging from the dry plains of the Pacific coastline area in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains, which run from the north to southeast of Peru, and from tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east, which is crossed by the Amazon river. Peru has a population of 33 million people, with Lima serving as both the country's capital and biggest city. Peru is the nineteenth-largest nation in the world, and the third-largest in South America, with a land area of 1.28 million km2 (0.5 million mi2).

Peru is a sovereign state that is a representative democratic republic that is split into 25 administrative regions. Peru has a high level of human development and an upper middle income level, ranking 82nd on the Human Development Index. It has an upper medium income level and a high level of human development. Having had average growth rates of 5.9 percent over the last five years, it is one of the region's most affluent economies, and it has experienced one of the world's highest industrial growth rates of 9.6 percent on average. Mining, manufacturing, agriculture, and fishing are the country's primary economic activity, with other rapidly expanding industries such as telecommunications and biotechnology also contributing to the country's GDP. In addition, the country is a member of the Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that are united by common trends of positive growth, sound macroeconomic underpinnings, improved governance, and a willingness to participate in global integration. With a high level of social freedom, Peru is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and the World Trade Organization, and it is seen as an emerging middle power in the region.