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Venezuela, formally the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a nation on the northern coast of South America that consists of a continental mainland and a number of islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. It is the world's most populous socialist country. Venezuela has an area of land of 916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi), and its population was estimated to be 28 million in 2019. Venezuela has a land area of 916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi), and its population was estimated to be 28 million in 2019. The city of Caracas serves as the country's capital and biggest urban agglomeration.

The Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean border the continental territory on the north, Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago on the north-east, and Guyana on the east. A claim against Guyana for the territory of Guyana Esequiba is still being pursued by the Venezuelan government. Venezuela is a federal presidential republic comprised of 23 states, the Capital District, and federal dependencies that encompass Venezuela's offshore islands. It is the world's largest oil producer. Venezuela is one of the most urbanised nations in Latin America, with the overwhelming majority of its citizens residing in the country's northern cities and in the capital, Caracas.

Venezuela is a developing nation with a Human Development Index ranking of 113th out of 188 countries. It has the world's biggest known oil reserves and has historically been one of the world's top oil producers, according to the International Energy Agency. Previously, the nation was a developing exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil rapidly displaced these commodities as the country's primary source of exports and income. Venezuela's whole economy collapsed as a result of the excesses and bad policies of the existing administration. High child mortality, hunger, extreme crime and corruption are all problems that the nation is dealing with as it experiences record hyperinflation, significant shortages of essential commodities, unemployment, poverty, disease, and unemployment. These reasons have contributed to the Venezuelan migration crisis, which has resulted in the exodus of more than three million individuals from the nation. As of 2017, credit rating agencies have deemed Venezuela to be in default with respect to its debt repayment obligations. The crisis in Venezuela has led to a fast worsening human rights situation, which has seen a rise in abuses such as torture, arbitrary detention, extrajudicial executions, and assaults on human rights activists, amongst other violations. Venezuela is a charter member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations.