Carol Alexander

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Carol Alexander
Carol Alexander.jpg
Born (1955-12-31) December 31, 1955 (age 66)
Alma materUniversity of Sussex

Carol Alexander is a British professor, consultant, researcher and author in the fields of mathematics, finance, and economics. She currently serves as a Professor of Finance at the University of Sussex,[1] a Visiting Professor at Peking University HSBC Business School,[2] and Co-Editor of the Journal of Banking and Finance (Elsevier).[3] She has edited many books on Finance, and she is the author of several books including the best-selling four-volume textbook series “Market Risk Analysis” (Wiley, 2008).[4]

Carol is known for her public speaking and research contributions to financial econometrics, mathematical finance, financial derivatives, and most recently to cryptocurrency markets and the metaverse.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] She has also designed and implemented numerous mathematical models for pricing, trading, hedging and risk assessment for a variety of asset management, banking, centralised exchange, software and data clients including the New York Stock Exchange, the Intercontinental Exchange, Credit Agricole, CryptoCompare and the FTX US exchange.[21]


Carol holds a BSc in Mathematics with Experimental Psychology and a PhD in Algebraic Number Theory from the University of Sussex, and an MSc in Mathematical Economics and Econometrics from the London School of Economics and Political Science.


Academic Career

Carol started her academic life as a teaching and research assistant at the London School of Economics and Political Science, then at the University of Sussex as a Lecturer in Mathematics and Economics. In 1999 she took a Chair in Finance at the ICMA Centre of the University of Reading where she served for thirteen years. In 2012, she returned to the University of Sussex as Professor of Finance in the Business School. She also took up a Visiting Professorship at Peking University HSBC Business School in 2019.

Industry Career

Carol’s first, full-time industry role was as a bond analyst for London-based stockbroker Phillips and Drew (later UBS Asset Management). In 1990 she began her consultancy work with Hill Samuel Bank to implement the first generation GARCH models and with Equitable House Investments, advising the CEO on volatility trading models. In 1994, she designed the cointegration arbitrage software for Pennoyer Capital Management alongside working in various consulting capacities for Royal Dutch Shell, EDF Man, and Robert Fleming & Co. She then worked half-time as the Academic Director of Algorithmics Inc., where she designed software and training courses for clients. She also founded the first virtual academic journal on financial risk management, “Net Exposure”.

In 1998, Carol left academia entirely to become a Director and Head of Market Risk Modelling at Nikko Asset Management, London. During this period, she also wrote her first textbook “Market Models”[22] and then she returned to full-time academic life at the University of Reading. During this period her consultancy work included: patenting her design of several models for active exchange traded funds with NYSE;[23] acting as an expert witness for London law firm Richard’s Butler; Risk Research Advisor for SAS software; and risk model design for Credit Agricole CIB.

Carol also volunteered to develop the Professional Risk Manager’s International Association (PRMIA) over a period of ten years.[24] First as Academic Director, she conceived and co-edited the three-volume Professional Risk Manager’s Handbook which underpins the PRM qualification, she founded and edited the industry journal “Intelligent Risk” and during the last two years she was Chair of the Board.[25]

Returning to the University of Sussex in 2012, Carol’s industry career continued with several consultancy roles, including: the margin model validation for ICE Clear Europe; advising the DTSL on real option models; expert witness consultancy for Fideres, UK and for White and Case, US;[26] and designing the first bitcoin volatility index for CryptoCompare, UK.[27] She was also the lead margin model architect in the FTX US application for a CFTC license in 2022.[28]


  1. "carol alexander". Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  2. "Carol Alexander". Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  3. "Editorial Board - Journal of Banking & Finance - Journal - Elsevier". Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  4. "Market Risk Analysis, Four Volume Boxset | Wiley". Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  5. "Digital currency ether hits a record high, stealing bitcoin's limelight". NBC News. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  6. Kelly, Jemima (1 July 2019). "Wha-Tether could be going on with the bitcoin price?". Financial Times. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  7. Browne, Ryan (22 December 2021). "From a bitcoin crash to regulatory crackdowns: Analysts give their top predictions for crypto in 2022". CNBC. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  8. "NFTs: Are they the future of the music industry?". BBC News. 20 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  9. Bradley, Charlie (5 January 2022). "Bitcoin crisis: Crypto tipped to 'crash' in 2022 as investors urged to pull out". Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  10. "'No real competitor' to Coinbase on centralized exchanges, says finance professor". CNBC. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  11. Kruppa, Miles (13 April 2021). "Coinbase listing set to capitalise on crypto bull run". Financial Times. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  12. "Bitcoin's weekend carnage sends jitters through the crypto markets". Fortune. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  13. "Dogecoin is 'two fingers up to the establishment', says finance prof". Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  14. Huang, Eustance (4 January 2022). "Founder of crypto lending platform argues that bitcoin could hit $100,000 by mid-2022". CNBC. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  15. Bradley, Charlie (16 January 2022). "Bitcoin tipped for huge crisis in 2022: 'Was a joke from the beginning'". Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  16. "no real competitor to coinbase on centralized exchanges says finance professor". MSN. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  17. "Dogecoin price surges as eToro makes cryptocurrency available to millions of new users". The Independent. 3 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  18. "Bitcoin Price Predictions: Where Will the BTC Crypto Go After Plunging Below $40,000?". nasdaq. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  19. "Crypto outlook: Another bull run or a crash; what experts expect". 25 January 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  20. Bradley, Charlie (10 January 2022). "Elon Musk blasted for Bitcoin stance: 'Doing it for the press'". Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  21. "PROFESSOR CAROL ALEXANDER" (PDF). Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  22. "". Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  23. "Academic Bio | Professor Carol Alexander". Carol Alexander. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  24. "PRMIA Home". Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  25. "Intelligent Risk". Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  26. "Fideres | Our Professionals". Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  27. "BVIN - Bitcoin Volatility Index". CryptoCompare. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  28. Hamilton, Jesse (19 April 2022). "FTX Plan Said to Face CFTC Roundtable Next Month". Retrieved 28 April 2022.

External links