Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines, as opposed to natural intelligence demonstrated by animals, including humans, and is defined as follows: In the subject of artificial intelligence, leading textbooks describe the discipline as the study of "intelligent agents," which are any systems that understand their surroundings and take actions that increase their chances of attaining their objectives. Some popular reports use the word "artificial intelligence" to denote robots that simulate "cognitive" activities that people connect with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving," although leading artificial intelligence researchers reject this definition.
Advanced web search engines (e.g., Google), recommendation systems (used by YouTube, Amazon, and Netflix), understanding human speech (e.g., Siri and Alexa), self-driving cars (e.g., Tesla), automated decision-making, and competing at the top level in strategic games consoles are examples of AI applications (such as chess and Go). As robots grow more proficient, actions that were previously deemed to need "intelligence" are gradually excluded from the concept of artificial intelligence, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. For example, optical character recognition (OCR) is typically omitted from items regarded to be artificial intelligence (AI), despite the fact that it has become a standard technology.
When artificial intelligence was first established as a formal academic discipline in 1956, it went through several waves of optimism, which were followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as a "AI winter," before being followed by new approaches, success, and the resumption of funding. Since its inception, artificial intelligence research has experimented with and abandoned a wide range of methodologies, including mimicking the brain, modelling human problem solving, formal logic, massive libraries of information, and emulating animal behaviour. Highly mathematical statistical machine learning has dominated the area in the first two decades of the twenty-first century, and this approach has shown to be extremely effective, assisting in the solution of a wide range of tough issues in both business and academia.
The different sub-fields of artificial intelligence study are organised around specific aims and the use of certain techniques. Research in artificial intelligence has traditionally focused on a variety of objectives such as problem solving, information representation and retrieval, learning, natural language processing, vision, and the capacity to move and control things. One of the field's long-term aims is to develop general intelligence (the capacity to solve any arbitrary issue without assistance). In order to address these issues, artificial intelligence researchers have adapted and integrated a diverse range of problem-solving techniques — including search and mathematical optimization, formal logic, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability, and economics — into a single system. AI relies on a wide range of disciplines, including computer science, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many more.
Based on the notion that "human intellect can be so accurately characterised that a computer may be constructed to imitate it," artificial intelligence was developed. There are philosophical discussions concerning the mind and the ethics of developing artificial creatures with human-like intellect that arise as a result of this. The exploration of these topics has been carried out by myth, literature, and philosophy since antiquity. As a result of its great potential and power, science fiction and futurology have proposed that artificial intelligence may pose an existential threat to mankind.