Located in the southern central region of Australia, South Australia is abbreviated as SA. Heavily arid regions of the country are covered by it. This Australian state and territory has a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 square miles), making it the fourth-largest by land area and the fifth-largest by population of all the states and territories in Australia. In total, it has a population of 1.77 million people, and its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of the state's residents residing in the capital, Adelaide, or the surrounding area. The state's other population centres are modest; Mount Gambier, the state's second-largest city, has a population of 28,684 people.
Besides the Northern Territory, South Australia is bounded by every other mainland state and the Northern Territory; it is bordered to the west by Western Australia, to the north by The Northern Territory, to the north-east by Queensland, to the east by New South Wales, to the south-east by Victoria, and to the south by the Great Australian Bight. The state has a population of less than 8% of the total Australian population and is the fifth most populous of the six states and two territories in terms of population among them. Greater Metropolitan Adelaide is home to the vast majority of the city's inhabitants.. The vast majority of the remaining population has settled in rich regions along the south-eastern coast and along the Murray River in South Australia. Rather than being established as a convict colony, the state's colonial roots are unusual in Australia in that it was established as a freely populated, planned British province. It was near the Old Gum Tree that the members of the council were sworn in on the 28th of December, 1836, marking the beginning of colonial government in Tasmania.
A lengthy history of human occupancy by a diverse range of tribes and languages has shaped the area, as has the rest of the continent. Adelaide was founded on July 26, 1836, five months after the South Australian Company established a temporary town at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The theory of systematic colonisation, advocated by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and later adopted by the New Zealand Company, served as the overarching principle for settlement in the region. The province was to be established as a centre of civilisation for free immigration, with civil freedoms and religious tolerance being promised as part of the package. Despite a past marred by economic hardship, South Australia has managed to stay politically creative while also maintaining a thriving cultural scene in the process. It is currently renowned for its great wine and a plethora of cultural events. The agricultural, manufacturing, and mining industries are the mainstays of the state's economy.