New South Wales

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New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is an Australian state located on the country's east coast. In addition to Queensland to the north and south, it has a boundary with South Australia to the west, and Victoria to the south and west. To the east, it shares a coastline with the Coral and Tasman Seas. The Australian Capital Territory is a self-governing enclave inside the state of New South Wales. The state capital of New South Wales is Sydney, which also happens to be the most populated city in Australia. In June 2020, the population of New South Wales was over 8.1 million, making it the most populated state in Australia and the country's largest. The Greater Sydney region is home to 5.3 million people, or little less than two-thirds of the state's total population. The term "New South Welshmen" refers to those who live in the state of New South Wales.

In 1788, the Colony of New South Wales was established as a British prison colony for convicts. With its western border established at the 129th meridian east in 1825, it once included more over half of the Australian mainland's geographical surface. The island possessions of Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island were also incorporated in the colony at that point. During the nineteenth century, the majority of the colony's land was divided into distinct British colonies, which ultimately evolved into the numerous states and territories that make up modern-day Australia. The Swan River Colony, on the other hand, was never governed as a component of the state of New South Wales.

Lord Howe Island remains a part of the state of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island, as well as the regions presently known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory, have become part of the federal territory of Australia.