Malaysia is a nation located in the Southeast Asian region. In Malaysia, there are thirteen states and three federal territories, divided by the South China Sea into two regions: Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. The federal constitutional monarchy is composed of thirteen states and three federal territories. A land and marine boundary with Thailand, as well as maritime boundaries with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia define Peninsular Malaysia's borders. East Malaysia has land and marine borders with the countries of Brunei and Indonesia, as well as a sea border with the countries of the Philippines and Vietnam, among others. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital of Malaysia, as well as the country's biggest city and the headquarters of the federal government's legislative branch. As the administrative capital of the federal government, the adjacent planned capital of Putrajaya is home to both the executive branch (the Cabinet and federal ministries and agencies) and the judicial branch (the Supreme Court and other courts of appeal). Malaysia is the 43rd most populated nation in the world, with a population of more than 32 million people. Tanjung Piai is the location of the southernmost point of continental Eurasia. Malaysia, located in the tropics, is one of 17 megadiverse nations on the planet, and it is home to a variety of unique species.
Malaysia's roots may be traced back to the Malay kingdoms, which were subject to the British Empire in the 18th century, together with the British Straits Settlements protectorate, and became known as Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia was united as the Malayan Union in 1946, bringing the country's history full circle. Malaysia was reorganised as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and gained independence from the United Kingdom on August 31, 1957. On September 16, 1963, the independent state of Malaya joined with the then-British crown possessions of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore to form the country of Malaysia. Singapore was ejected from the Federation in August 1965 and established itself as a distinct and sovereign nation.
Following independence, Malaysia's gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an average annual rate of 6.5 percent for almost 50 years. Its natural resources have historically been the engine of the economy, but the country's economy is growing in the fields of research, tourism, trade, and medical tourism. With a freshly industrialised market economy, Malaysia ranks third in Southeast Asia and 33rd in the globe, with a population of around 155 million people. It is a founder member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the European Union, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, as well as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth, and the Non-Aligned Movement.