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Judo is a Japanese style of unarmed fighting that is both a contemporary martial art and an Olympic sport (since 1964). Jijigoro Kano founded Judo in 1882 as an eclectic martial art that distinguished itself from its predecessors by emphasising "randori" (unpredictable movements) rather than "kata" (pre-arranged patterns) and by excluding components such as hitting and weapon training from the practise. Judo grew to popularity as a consequence of its success against established jujutsu schools in competitions sponsored by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department, which led to it being adopted as the department's principal martial art in the following year. Even though "jujutsu" was a Japanese term that refers to this sub-type of martial arts, Judo was originally known as Kano Jujutsu or Kano Ryu ("Kano's style of jujutsu") in order to distinguish it from other jujutsu schools; however, this naming convention has faded in prominence since the formal name of Judo was adopted. Judo practitioners are referred to as "judoka," and the judo costume is referred to as "judogi."

The goal of competitive judo is to throw an opponent, paralyse them with a pin, or compel an opponent to submit by applying a joint lock or a choke on their body. However, although certain pre-arranged forms (kata) incorporate blows and the usage of weapons, these techniques are not usually taught and are prohibited in judo competitions and open practise sessions. The Worldwide Judo Federation (IJF) is the sport's international regulatory organisation, and participants participate on the IJF professional circuit, which is based in Japan.

Judo's philosophy is based on two fundamental principles: "Seiryoku-Zenyo" (most efficient use of energy) and "Jita-Kyoei" (justice without mercy) (mutual welfare and benefit). In the process of developing judo, the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy that was formed provided the blueprint for the development of other contemporary Japanese martial arts that grew from koryu (traditional schools). As a result, Judo has inspired a variety of derivative martial arts all around the globe, including Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Krav Maga, Sambo, and ARB, among others. Judo has also had an impact on other fighting forms such as close-quarters combat (CQC), mixed martial arts (MMA), shot wrestling, and submission wrestling, amongst others.