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One of the Greater Sunda Islands that make up Indonesia is called Java. The Java Sea is located to the north, while the Indian Ocean may be found to the south of this landmass. Java is the most populated island in the world, with a population of around 148.76 million people. This number accounts for approximately 55% of the total population of Indonesia.

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is located on the shore of Java's northern tip. Java was the setting for a significant number of Indonesia's most significant historical events. It was the hub of the Dutch colonial empire in the East Indies, as well as the centre of major Hindu-Buddhist empires and Islamic sultanates. During the 1930s and 1940s, when Indonesians were fighting for their independence, Java was the epicentre of the conflict. Politically, economically, and culturally, Java is the dominant region in Indonesia. Ujung Kulon National Park, the Borobudur Temple, the Prambanan Temple, and the Sangiran Early Man Site are the four UNESCO World Heritage Sites that can be found in Java. Indonesia has a total of eight such sites.

Java is the 13th biggest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by size. It was formed by volcanic eruptions as a result of the tectonic subduction of the Australian Plate beneath the Sunda Plate. Java's landmass is around 138,800 square kilometres (53,600 sq mi). The island's "spine," which runs east to west, is made up of a series of volcanic mountain ranges.

On this island, the four primary languages that are spoken are Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, and Betawi. Javanese and Sundanese are the languages that are used the most. Javanese people live in the island's centre and eastern regions, while Sundanese people live in the island's western regions. Both ethnic groups are indigenous to the island. The Madurese populate the Eastern salient of Java and are originally from Madura Island. On the other hand, the Betawi populate the capital city of Jakarta and are a blend of people from many other Indonesian ethnic groups. The majority of inhabitants are fluent in two languages, with Indonesian being either their first or second language. Indonesian is the national language of Indonesia. Java's population is made up of individuals who adhere to a wide variety of religious views, nationalities, and cultural traditions, despite the fact that the majority of Java's inhabitants are Muslims.

Banten, West Java, Central Java, and East Java are the four administrative provinces that make up Java, whereas Jakarta and Yogyakarta are the two special areas that make up Java.