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Indonesians are Indonesian nationals or Indonesian people, regardless of their racial, ethnic, or religious heritage or affiliation. Indonesia is a cosmopolitan archipelagic nation with a diverse range of languages, cultures, and religious beliefs, with more than 1,300 ethnic groups making up the country's population. Approximately 270.2 million people lived in Indonesia in 2020, according to the country's annual census. Java, the world's most populated island, is home to 56 percent of the world's population. Around 95 percent of Indonesians are indigenous Indonesians (formerly referred to as "Pribumi"), with Javanese and Sundanese constituting the majority (40 percent Javanese and 15 percent Sundanese), and the remaining 5 percent are Indonesians with ancestry from foreign countries, such as Arab Indonesians, Chinese Indonesians, Indian Indonesians, and Indos.

As of 2020, Indonesians will account for 3.4 percent of the world's total population, making it the fourth most populated nation in the world after China, India, and the United States of America.

Despite the existence of a reasonably successful family planning programme that has been in operation since 1967, Indonesia's population grew by 1.1 percent over the decade ending in 2020, according to the World Bank. At such pace, Indonesia's population is anticipated to exceed the current population of the United States by 2043, and if the current US population does not grow, Indonesia will overtake China and India as the world's third most populous country by then. According to the 1967 programme, family planning has already been revitalised to prevent Indonesia from becoming the world's third most populated nation.

Java is the most populated island on the planet, with a population of 151.6 million people, accounting for 56 percent of the Indonesian population and being the most populous island on the planet. Jakarta, the Indonesian capital city, is situated on the island of Java in the west of the country. Java was the site of most of Indonesia's historical activity. There were great Hindu-Buddhist dynasties in the region, as well as Islamic sultanates, and it served as the heart of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Indonesia's independence fight, which took place on Java between 1930 and 1940, was also centred on the island. Java is the most powerful province in Indonesia, both politically and economically.