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Southeast Asia's Cambodia is formally known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, and it occupies a region of the Indochinese Peninsula in the southern half of the peninsula. There are maritime boundaries with Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, and the country has an area of 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 square miles). Thailand borders it on the northwest, Laos borders it on the north, Vietnam borders it on the east and the Gulf of Thailand borders it on the southwest. Phnom Penh is the nation's capital and biggest city, as well as its economic centre.

Cambodia is a sovereign state with a population of more than 15 million people. Buddhism is officially recognised by the government as the official state religion, and it is practised by more than 97 percent of the people, according to the constitution. Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams, and 30 hill tribes are among Cambodia's minority groups, which also include the Khmer. Cambodia's capital and biggest city, Phnom Penh, serves as the country's political, economic, and cultural nerve centre. Currently, Norodom Sihamoni serves as the head of state in this constitutional monarchy ruled by an elected monarch who is selected by the Royal Council of the Throne (the Royal Council of the Throne). The Prime Minister, who is now Hun Sen, is the country's head of government. He has been in power since 1985 and is the longest-serving non-royal leader in Southeast Asia.

Since ancient times, the territory that is today known as Cambodia has been inhabited by humans. During the year 802 AD, Jayavarman II established himself as king, unifying the warring Khmer lords of Chenla under the name "Kambuja." In this way, the Khmer Empire, which lasted more than 600 years, was officially inaugurated in Cambodia. With its Indianized empire, Hinduism and eventually Buddhism were introduced to most of Southeast Asia, and the country conducted a number of religious infrastructure projects across the area. Angkor Wat is the most well-known of these temples, and it has been classified as a UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site. Cambodia saw a loss in power throughout the fifteenth century, while its neighbours Vietnam and Thailand increased in strength. Cambodia became a protectorate of France in 1863, and it eventually became a part of French Indochina as a result of this. During World War II, the nation was occupied by the Japanese, and it was only after the war that French sovereignty was restored.

Cambodia obtained independence from France in 1953, under the leadership of King Norodom Sihanouk, who later became a politician. The war in Vietnam reached Cambodia in 1965, despite the nation's neutrality in the conflict. North Vietnam's extension of the Ho Chi Minh Trail and the construction of the Sihanouk Trail brought the war into the country. This resulted in the United States bombing Cambodia from 1969 to 1973. Following the 1970 coup that established the right-wing pro-US Khmer Republic, the ousted King Sihanouk sided with his erstwhile adversaries, the Khmer Rouge headed by Pol Pot, in their fight against the Khmer Rouge. Having gained assistance from the monarchy and North Vietnam, the Khmer Rouge rose to become a dominant force, eventually seizing control of Phnom Penh in 1975. The Khmer Rouge governed Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, during which time they perpetrated the Cambodian genocide until being defeated in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. In the aftermath of the genocide, the Vietnamese-occupied People's Republic of Kampuchea became the de facto government, with efforts to reconstruct the country after the slaughter hampered by a lack of international recognition and a continuing struggle.