In the upper Midwestern United States, Wisconsin is surrounded by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Its capital is Madison. Wisconsin is the 25th-largest state in terms of land area and the 20th-most populated in terms of population.
On the southern side of Lake Michigan, three of Wisconsin's major cities are located. These include the state's capital of Milwaukee and the cities of Green Bay and Kenosha, which rank third and fourth on the state's population rankings, respectively. Madison, Wisconsin's state capital, is now the state's second most populous and fastest expanding city, behind Milwaukee. Wisconsin is split into 72 counties and has a population of about 5.9 million people as of the 2020 census, according to the United States Census Bureau.
Wisconsin's terrain is diversified, having been significantly influenced by glaciers during the Ice Age, with the exception of the Driftless Area, which has remained relatively untouched. The Northern Highland and Western Upland, as well as a portion of the Central Plain, dominate the western portion of the state, with lowlands extending all the way to the shores of Lake Michigan in the eastern portion. Wisconsin's Great Lakes shoreline is the third-longest in the country, after only Ontario and Michigan. Located in the northern part of the state, the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest is a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts.
It was inhabited by Algonquian and Siouan nations at the time of European contact, and it is now home to eleven federally recognised tribes. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a large number of European immigrants arrived in the state, the most of whom were from Germany and Scandinavia. Wisconsin has maintained its position as a cultural hotspot for German American and Scandinavian American communities.
America's Dairyland is a nickname given to the state of Wisconsin, which is one of the nation's largest dairy producers and is recognised for producing cheese in particular. The state is also well-known for its beer, which is especially prevalent in Milwaukee and has a long history. Manufacturing, healthcare, information technology, and agriculture, notably dairy, cranberries, and ginseng, are the most important industries in the country. Tourism is also a significant contribution to the state's economic well-being. In 2020, the gross domestic product (GDP) will be $348 billion.