Uzbekistan, formally the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a landlocked country in Central Asia that is divided in two by the Caspian Sea. There are five nations surrounding it: Kazakhstan to the north, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Tajikistan to the southeast, Afghanistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the south-west. Tashkent is the country's capital and biggest city. It is crucial to highlight that Uzbekistan is a member of the Turkic speaking globe as well as the Turkic Council. As well as being the predominant spoken language in Uzbekistan, Russian is also widely used as an inter-ethnic language and as a tool for administration in that country. Islam is the predominant religion in Uzbekistan, with non-denominational Muslims comprising the vast majority of the population.
A presidential constitutional government is in existence in Uzbekistan, which is a secular state with a presidential system of government. Uzbekistan is divided into 12 regions (vilayats), the capital city of Tashkent, and one autonomous republic, Karakalpakstan. While non-governmental human rights organisations have described Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian regime with restricted civil liberties," the government has described the country as "a democracy with limited civil rights." As a result of the murder of dictator Islam Karimov, the country's second president has instituted a number of important reform measures. Consequently, ties with the neighbouring nations of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan have significantly improved as a result of these changes. According to a United Nations study published in 2020, significant progress has been made toward fulfilling the UN's sustainable development objectives.
It is the goal of the Uzbek government to gradually convert the country's economy to a market economy, with its international trade strategy focused on import substitution. When the country's currency reached full market value in September 2017, it became completely convertible. cotton Uzbekistan is a significant producer and exporter of cotton in the world. Uzbekistan has surpassed all other Central Asian countries in terms of energy production because to the massive power-generation facilities built during the Soviet period and an abundant supply of natural gas. Standard and Poor's (S&P) and Fitch both gave the nation a BB- credit rating for the period 2018 to 2021, respectively. According to the Brookings Institution, Uzbekistan's advantages include a significant amount of liquid assets, rapid economic development, and a low level of public debt. The low GDP per capita is one of the factors limiting the republic's ability to develop. Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the United Nations, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.