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In Japan, Tokyo, formally known as the Tokyo Metropolis, serves as the country's capital and most populated prefecture. The prefecture, which is located at the head of Tokyo Bay on Japan's main island of Honshu, is a part of the Kant region, which is located on the central Pacific coast of the country. Tokyo serves as the country's political and economic hub, as well as the residence of the Emperor of Japan and the seat of the Japanese national government. According to projections for 2021, the prefecture will have a population of 14.04 million people. When it comes to population density, the Greater Tokyo Area ranks first in the globe, with an estimated 37.468 million people living there in 2018.

Originally a fishing hamlet known as Edo, the city rose to prominence as a major political centre in 1603, when it was designated as the official residence of the Tokugawa shogunate. Edo, with a population of over one million people by the mid-18th century, was one of the world's most populated cities. Following the dissolution of the shogunate in 1868, the imperial capital was relocated from Kyoto to the city, which was called Tokyo as a result of the relocation (literally "eastern capital"). When the Great Kant earthquake struck Tokyo in 1923, it was completely destroyed, and it was destroyed again by Allied air attacks during World War II. After World War II, the city saw fast rebuilding and growth, and it went on to play a key role in Japan's post-war economic recovery after the war. Japan's 23 special wards (formerly known as Tokyo City), several bed towns in the western region, and two outlying island chains have all been governed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government since 1943.

Japan's capital, Tokyo, is the world's biggest metropolitan economy in terms of gross domestic product and is classified as an Alpha+ city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Tokyo is the principal commercial and financial hub in Japan, and it is located within an industrial area that encompasses the cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki, and Chiba. A total of 36 Fortune Global 500 businesses were housed there in 2019. It will be placed fourth on the Global Financial Centres Index in 2020, after New York City, London, and Shanghai, according to the index's latest edition. Tokyo is home to the Tokyo Skytree, the world's tallest structure, as well as the MAOUDC, the world's biggest underground floodwater diversion system. The Tokyo Metro Ginza Line is the oldest underground metro line in East Asia, having opened its doors in 1923. (1927).