Serbia and Montenegro

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Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, sometimes known as FR Yugoslavia or just Yugoslavia, was a nation in the Balkans that existed from 1992 to 2003 as a result of the disintegration of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which had been in existence since 1918. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was constituted of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, which were both former Yugoslav republics. A federal republic was turned into a political union in February 2003, and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was established as the official name of the new entity. In 2006, Montenegro withdrew from the union, resulting in the unification of Serbia and Montenegro as a sovereign state.

Following the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 777, which declared that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had ceased to exist and that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a new state, the country's aspirations to be the sole legitimate legal successor to SFR Yugoslavia were not recognised by the United Nations. All previous republics were eligible for state succession, but none of them retained the international legal identity of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. However, the administration of Slobodan Miloevi was adamant in its opposition to any such allegations, and as a result, FR Yugoslavia was denied admission to the United Nations.

Because of economic hardship and conflict, there was rising dissatisfaction with the administration of Slobodan Miloevi and his supporters, who effectively governed both Serbia and Montenegro as a dictatorship. Eventually, this culminated in the Bulldozer revolution, which saw his administration overturned and replaced by a government headed by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia and Vojislav Kotunica, which also joined the United Nations (UN).

Following a resolution by the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia to implement the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia came to an end in 2003, resulting in the establishment of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. As a result, Yugoslavia was relegated to the annals of history. Milo ukanovi's growing separatist movement in Montenegro led to the inclusion of an article in the Constitution of Serbia and Montenegro that allows for the holding of a referendum on the topic of Montenegrin independence after a period of three years has elapsed. The referendum was called in 2006, and it was narrowly approved by the voters. Because of this, the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was dissolved, and the separate republics of Serbia and Montenegro were established, resulting in Serbia becoming a landlocked nation. This may be regarded the last act in the collapse of Yugoslavia, since it brought the country to a close.