Sam Kriegman

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Sam Kriegman
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CitizenshipUnited States of America
Alma materUniversity of Vermont
Known forXenobots
Self-replicating machines
Scientific career
FieldsRobotics, Artificial Intelligence, Synthetic Biology
InstitutionsHarvard University
Tufts University
Academic advisorsMichael Levin
InfluencesKarl Sims
Hod Lipson

Sam Kriegman is an American computer scientist and roboticist. He received his bachelor's degree in Applied Mathematics from Ohio University, his master's degree in Statistics from the University of Vermont, and his PhD in Computer Science from the University of Vermont.

He served as a postdoctoral fellow under Michael Levin at the Wyss Institute at Harvard University and the Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University in the United States. He is known for discovering xenobot.

His PhD research at the University of Vermont resulted in the creation of the computer-designed organisms, known in popular culture as xenobot.[1][2][3] His postdoctoral research at Harvard University led to the discovery of kinematic biological replication.[4][5][6]

He is the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences Cozzarelli Prize. [7]


  1. Sokol, Joshua (2020-04-03). "Meet the Xenobots: Virtual Creatures Brought to Life". The New York Times.
  2. Hutson, Matthew (2021-12-16). "Scientists Create 'Living Machines' With Algorithms, Frog Cells". Bloomberg Businessweek.
  3. "Biological Robots May Soon Build You a Better Heart". Bloomberg Moonshot. 2021-06-03.
  4. Rascoe, Ayesha (2021-12-05). "It's not science fiction. Scientists have really made robots that reproduce". NPR.
  5. Duncan, Jericka (2022-01-30). "Boston scientists create "robots" that are capable of reproduction". CBS Evening News.
  6. Iati, Marisa (2021-11-30). "These living robots made of frog cells can now reproduce, study says". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286.
  7. "PNAS Announces Six 2020 Cozzarelli Prize Recipients". National Academy of Sciences. 2021-03-15.

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