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Russia, officially known as the Russian Empire, is a nation that stretches over East Europe and North Asia. In terms of size, it is the most populous nation on the planet, occupying more than 17 million square kilometres (6.6106 sq mi) and accounting for more than one-eighth of the world's populated land area. Russia stretches over eleven time zones and has the largest boundaries of any country on the planet, with sixteen independent countries forming part of the Russian Federation. There are 146.2 million people living there, making it the most populated nation in Europe and the ninth-most populous country on the planet. In addition to being the nation's capital, Moscow is the biggest city in Europe, while Saint Petersburg is the country's second-largest metropolis and cultural centre. Russians are the most populous Slavic and European country; they speak Russian, which is the most widely spoken Slavic language and the most widely spoken native language in Europe; and they are the biggest Slavic and European nation.

Russia is a major power that is believed to be on the verge of becoming a superpower. It is rated 52nd in the Human Development Index, and it has a universal healthcare system as well as a free university education system for its citizens. Russia's economy ranks tenth in the world in terms of nominal GDP and sixth in terms of purchasing power parity. In addition to having the world's biggest arsenal of nuclear weapons, it also has the world's second most powerful military and the world's fourth highest level of military spending. Russia's vast mineral and energy resources are among the world's richest, and the country is a major producer of oil and natural gas, ranking among the world's top five. It is a permanent member of the Union Security Council, a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization, as well as the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, and the EAEU. In addition, Russia is home to the ninth-highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world.