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Romania is a nation located at the junction of three continents: Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Southeastern Europe. Bulgaria's southern border is with Ukraine's northern boundary, Hungary's western border is with Serbia's southwest border, Moldova's eastern border is with the Black Sea's southeast border is with Bulgaria's southern border. A mainly temperate-continental climate prevails across the country, which has a land area of 238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) and a population of about 19 million people. Romania is the twelfth-largest nation in Europe and the sixth-most populated member state of the European Union, according to the United Nations Development Programme. Bucharest is the nation's capital and largest city; other significant metropolitan areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, Braşov, and Galaţi. Romania also has a number of smaller towns and villages.

Europe's second-longest river, the Danube originates in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a southeasterly direction for 2,857 kilometres (1,775 miles) until emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. Moldoveanu Peak, at an elevation of 2,544 metres above sea level, is located in the Carpathian Mountains, which stretch from the north to the south of Romania (8,346 ft).

Romania is a developing nation with a high-income economy, and it is ranked 49th in the world in terms of human development. It has the 45th biggest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP. Romania witnessed significant economic development in the early 2000s; the country's economy is now focused mostly on services, as opposed to manufacturing. Through businesses such as Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it is a manufacturer of machines and a net exporter of electric energy. Romania has been a signatory to the United Nations since 1955, NATO since 2004, and the Euro Zone since 2007. It has also been a member of the European Union since 2007. Approximately 80% of Romania's population is ethnic Romanian and Eastern Orthodox Christians who speak Romanian, a Romance language, as their first language.