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Western Asia is home to the nation of Qatar, formally known as the State of Qatar. It shares its sole land border with neighbouring Saudi Arabia, which is also a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, to the south, with the rest of its territory being surrounded by the Persian Gulf. Qatar occupies the small Qatar Peninsula, which is located on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Qatar and neighbouring Bahrain are geographically separated by the Gulf of Bahrain, which is an entrance of the Persian Gulf. Doha is the nation's capital, and it is also home to more than 80 percent of the country's population.

Since Mohammed bin Thani signed a contract with the British in 1868 that confirmed Qatar's distinct existence, the country of Qatar has been controlled by the House of Thani in the form of a hereditary monarchy. After being ruled by the Ottomans, Qatar was annexed by the British in the early part of the 20th century and remained a protectorate until it attained its independence in 1971. According to the Constitution of Qatar, he is vested with practically all of the administrative and legislative power, and he also exercises control over the judicial system. He is in charge of making appointments to the government and the prime minister. The Consultative Assembly, which has only some of its members elected, has the power to veto laws and only some of the power to fire ministers.

At the beginning of 2017, Qatar had a total population of 2.6 million people, including 313,000 native Qataris and 2.3 million foreign residents. Islam is recognised as the state religion. The nation has the fourth-highest GDP (PPP) per capita and the sixth-highest GNI per capita in the world, respectively, when it comes to its level of income (Atlas method). The Human Development Index in Qatar is the third highest of any Arab nation. It is a high-income economy that is supported by the natural gas deposits and oil reserves that are the third biggest in the world. The country of Qatar is the country that produces the most carbon dioxide per person and is the greatest exporter of liquefied natural gas in the world.

In the 21st century, Qatar has emerged as a major power in the Arab world as a result of its resource-wealth, as well as its worldwide growing media business, Al Jazeera Media Network, and apparently providing financial assistance to many rebel groups during the Arab Spring. Restrictions on civil liberties such as the freedoms of association, expression, and the press, as well as Qatar's treatment of thousands of migrant workers for projects in the country that amount to forced labour, have led academics and non-governmental organisations to regard Qatar's human rights record as being generally poor. This is because of the country's treatment of migrant workers, which amounts to forced labour. The 2022 FIFA World Cup will be held in Qatar, which became the first Muslim nation in the Arab world to be given the right to host the tournament when it was decided to award it to Qatar under contentious circumstances. The Asian Games were last held in Qatar in 2006, and they will be held there again in the year 2030.