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Nigerians, often known as the Nigerian people, are persons who are citizens of Nigeria or who have ancestors who came from Nigeria. Nigeria is made up of a diverse range of ethnic groups and cultures, and the name "Nigerian" refers to a civic nationality based on one's citizenship. Nigerians are descended from more than 250 different ethnic groups and languages. Despite the fact that Nigeria has a diverse population of ethnic and religious backgrounds, economic factors have resulted in significant mobility of Nigerians from a variety of ethnic and religious backgrounds to reside in areas of the country that are outside their ethnic or religious background, resulting in a mixing of the various ethnic and religious groups, particularly in the country's cities. Nigerians communicate mostly in English, which is their native language. Nigerians are mostly Muslim, with around 45.5 percent of the population being Christian. This is due to the fact that the northern area has a bigger landmass than both the Western and Eastern regions combined, resulting in a Muslim majority.

A number of historical states in Nigeria have had an impact on Nigerian society via their rulers, legal and taxing systems, and the use of religion to justify the king's authority and unify the people. The following are some of the most influential historical states in Nigeria. Northern Nigeria has been culturally affected by Islamic influence, which includes numerous important ancient Islamic states in the area, as well as by European and African influences. The Kanem-Bornu Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate were two prominent historical Islamic empires in northern Nigeria that flourished throughout the mediaeval period. Southern Nigeria has historically been home to various prominent powers, notably the Benin Empire and the Oyo Empire, as well as the Ife Confederacy and several other Yoruba-dominated kingdoms and republics.[1]

The Igbo and Tiv live in villages of two types: the first is a collection of scattered compounds, and the second is a collection of nuclei of compounds. The Hausa fulani, Yoruba, and Kanuri dwell in villages of the second kind, which includes nuclei of compounds. Those who live in these villages are members of the ethnicity to whom they are linked via genealogy and foreigners who have been assimilated into the ethnicity. The adoption of outsiders into Nigerian tribes has been a prevalent practise among tribes in the country since before colonialism and continues to be so to this day. A village chief, also known as a Baale, is a male senior in the community who is elected by his peers.

A significant amount of Nigerians live in close proximity to foreigners, particularly Europeans, Lebanese, and Indians, particularly in Nigeria's major cities and towns. As a consequence of the economic significance of Nigeria's cities, individuals have begun to migrate away from their traditional ethnic or cultural homelands and settle in cities outside of those borders. It has been normal practise for Igbo, Hausa-Fulani, and Ibibio people from the south to commute to Lagos for commerce or labour, while a large number of northern seasonal workers and small-scale businesses relocate to the south.

Most Nigerians, however, continue to peacefully coexist, and a common Nigerian identity has been developed among the more educated and affluent Nigerians, as well as among the large number of Nigerians who leave small homogeneous ethnic communities in search of economic opportunities in urban areas where the population is ethnically mixed, despite instances of extremism. Despite the fact that Nigerians have distinct cultural identities, the English language is widely spoken and understood as their major language. Furthermore, the majority of Nigerians are united in their support for individual liberty and democratic principles. Even throughout times of military administration, such military regimes were under intense public pressure to retain democratic attitudes by the Nigerian people and the international community. Nigeria's political leaders are familiar with a variety of indigenous languages, including languages other than their own native tongue.


  1. "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 18 July 2019.