Manchester is a populous metropolitan borough in the English county of Greater Manchester. The city has a population of 547,627 people (as of 2018), making it the fifth-most populous in the country. It is located within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, which has a population of 2.7 million people, third-most populous county, which has a population of around 2.8 million people, and third-most populous metropolitan area, which has a population of 3.3 million people. It is bordered on the south by the Cheshire Plain, on the north and east by the Pennines, and on the north and east by an arc of cities that together create a continuous conurbation. Manchester City Council is in charge of the administration of the city.
Manchester's recorded history begins with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell in about AD 79. Manchester's recorded history ends with the settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the However, despite being historically and culturally a part of Lancashire, the southernmost parts of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were annexed to Greater Manchester in the twentieth century. Wythenshawe was the first community to be included in the city, having been established in 1931. After remaining mostly unchanged since the Middle Ages, Manchester started to grow at a "astonishing pace" at the beginning of the 19th century, and it has continued to grow ever since. Due to a surge in textile manufacturing during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester experienced unplanned urbanisation, which resulted in it being the world's first industrialised metropolis. Manchester was officially designated as a city in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal was completed in 1894, establishing the Port of Manchester and providing a direct connection between the city and the Irish Sea, which is located 36 miles (58 kilometres) to the west. Despite a fall in fortune after World War II due to deindustrialisation, the IRA bombing in 1996 spurred massive investment and reconstruction in the city. In 2002, Manchester was chosen as the host city for the Commonwealth Games after undergoing a successful reconstruction after the IRA attack.
The architecture, culture, musical exports, media ties, scientific and engineering output, social influence, sports clubs, and transportation connections of the city are all noteworthy features of the city. Manchester Located on the outskirts of Liverpool, Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger train station. Ernest Rutherford made the first successful split of the atom at the University of Manchester in 1917, Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn, and Geoff Tootill created the world's first stored-program computer in 1948, and Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov isolated the first graphene in 2004 at the same institution.