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The Republic of Liberia, more often known as Liberia, is a nation located on the coast of West Africa. It is bounded to the northwest by Sierra Leone, to the north by Guinea, to the east by the Ivory Coast, and to the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has a total area of 111,369 square kilometres and has a population of around 5 million people (43,000 sq mi). Although English is the country's official language, there are over 20 indigenous languages spoken across the country, which reflects the rich ethnic and cultural variety of the nation. Monrovia is both the nation's seat of government and its biggest metropolis.

The American Colonization Society (ACS), which held the belief that black people would have more opportunities for freedom and wealth in Africa than in the United States, was the organisation responsible for initiating the creation of Liberia in the early 19th century. More than 15,000 liberated and free-born black people who endured social and legal persecution in the United States moved to Liberia between 1822 and the commencement of the American Civil War in 1861. Additionally, 3,198 Afro-Caribbeans made the journey to Liberia during the same time period. The Liberian constitution and flag were modelled after those of the United States, and the nation's capital was named after James Monroe, who supported the American Colonization Society and served as President of the United States. The United States did not acknowledge Liberia's independence until February 5, 1862, even though the country's declaration of independence occurred on July 26, 1847. After the people of Liberia declared their independence on January 3, 1848, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, a rich, free-born African American from the state of Virginia in the United States who had moved in Liberia, was chosen as the country's first president. He took office on January 3, 1848.

In addition to being the continent's first and oldest modern republic, Liberia also has the title of being the first African republic to declare its independence. During the Scramble for Africa, it was one of the few African nations that managed to keep its sovereignty intact. In exchange for Liberia's assistance in the United States' war effort against Germany during World War II, the United States made significant investments in the country's infrastructure, which contributed to Liberia's growing prosperity and economic growth. Liberia was a founder member of the League of Nations, the United Nations, and the Organization of African Unity during the administration of President William Tubman, who promoted economic and political reforms that increased the country's wealth and prominence on the world stage.

The indigenous peoples that the American and Liberian settlers came into contact with did not get a warm welcome from the former, particularly those who lived in the more remote interior. Kru and Grebo warriors from their respective interior chiefdoms often attacked colonial outposts. Educating the local population was a priority for the Americo-Liberians, thus they encouraged religious groups to establish schools and missions in the area. Americo-Liberians organised themselves into a tiny elite that controlled disproportionate political power; until 1904, native Africans were denied the right to citizenship by birth in their own country.

During the reign of William R. Tolbert, political tensions culminated to a military coup in 1980, which ended in Tolbert's death. This marked the end of Amerio-Liberian government in the nation and the beginning of nearly two decades of political instability. First and Second Liberian Civil Wars followed a total of ten years of administration by the People's Redemption Council, which was a military government, and the National Democratic Party of Liberia, which was a civilian government. Both governments held power for a total of twenty years. These events led to the deaths of about 8% of the population, or 250,000 people, as well as the relocation of many more people and a 90% reduction in the size of Liberia's economy. The signing of a peace deal in 2003 paved the way for democratic elections in 2005, which were won by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who made history by becoming the first female president of a country on the African continent. The civil wars and the breakout of the Ebola virus from 2013 to 2016 had a catastrophic impact on the country's infrastructure and basic social services. As of 2015, 83% of the population was living below the international poverty line.