Kuwait, formally the State of Kuwait, is a nation in Western Asia that borders the Persian Gulf. It is located on the northern edge of Eastern Arabia near the point of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north and Saudi Arabia to the south. It is the largest nation in the region. Kuwait has a coastline that is about 500 kilometres long (311 mi). Kuwait City, the country's capital, is home to the majority of the country's population, which is concentrated in an urban agglomeration. Kuwait has a population of 4.67 million inhabitants as of 2021, with 1.45 million Kuwaitis and 3.2 million foreign nationals. Kuwait has a population of 4.67 million people as of 2021, with 1.45 million Kuwaitis and 3.2 million foreign nationals.
At one point in history, Kuwait served as a major commercial port connecting Mesopotamia with India. Oil deposits in significant amounts were found in 1938, and production began immediately. The first time crude oil was shipped was in 1946, according to official records. In the period 1946 to 1982, the nation undertook a massive modernisation programme that was mainly financed by revenues from oil extraction. Kuwait went through a period of geopolitical turmoil, as well as an economic crisis after the collapse of the stock market, in the 1980s. Kuwait was invaded by Iraq under Saddam Hussein in 1990, and subsequently incorporated into one of Iraq's governorates as a result of the invasion. A military coalition headed by the United States and other nations intervened in Kuwait in 1991 and brought the Iraqi occupation of the country to an end, bringing the conflict to a close.