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Iran, previously known as Persia, and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a nation in Western Asia that borders the Persian Gulf. It is surrounded by Armenia and Azerbaijan to the northwest, the Caspian Sea to the north, Turkmenistan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the east, Pakistan to the southeast, the Persian Gulf to the south, and the Gulf of Oman to the west. It is also bordered by Turkey and Iraq to the west. Iran has a land area of 636,372 square miles and a population of 83 million people. Iran is the second-biggest nation in the Middle East in terms of land area, with Tehran serving as both its capital and largest metropolis.