Eyo Ephraim Adam

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Eyo Ephraim Adam (Eyo Efiom Ededem Edak Edem Etim Efiom Okoho Efiom Ekpo Efiom Ekpo; ca.1849-1911) was the head of Etim Efiom royal house of Akwa Akpa|Old Calabar from 1908 until his death on September 28 1911.[1] His father Ephraim Adam was the founder of the Tete household in Etim Efiom House.[2] His mother Enang Otuk Oyom was equally from Etim Efiom House.

Template:Section Independence of Etim Efiom Royal House On the death of Adam Ephraim Adam I|Obong Adam Ephraim Adam I in 1906, Eyo Ephraim assumed the position of family head of Etim Efiom sub-House of great Duke House.[3] At this time, Etim Efiom was a sub-house of Duke House.[4] Thus, the late Obong Adam Ephraim Adam I assumed leadership of Duke House albeit having paternal descent from Etim Efiom.[3] Eyo contested for the role of Etubom of Duke House.[3] The only other candidate who emerged in the contest was Adam Ephraim Duke the family-head of Efiong Essien/Okon Idem sub-house of the larger Duke House.[3] With the full backing and support of members of the Duke Ephraim lineage; Adam Ephraim Duke succeeded as Etubom of great Duke House in 1906.[3] This was one of the motivating factors for the move to liberate Etim Efiom house from Duke House. Prior to this period, Etim Efiom House originally known as Tom Ephraim House was established in 1790 and was later placed under regency in 1834 by Duke Ephraim.[5] Thus, Eyo Ephraim together with Oyo-Ita and Eneyo houses sought their liberation from Duke House. Unlike the warring route taken by some houses to assert their independence from Duke House, the fight for the independence of Etim Efiom house was taken to court.[6] Unfortunately, Eyo Ephraim did not live to see the house being liberated as he died in 1911 leaving the journey to his younger sibling, Ekpo Ephraim Adam. Etim Efiom House became autonomous on 11 April 1913.[7]


The abolishment of the slave trade by the British did not mean that slaves in the West African region would be automatically liberated. Slave owners in Calabar had a strong grip on their slaves in spite of the changes Old Calabar was experiencing. While the Chiefs of Old Calabar lived and traded in Calabar, farming activities were often relegated to the slaves in the Plantations at Akpabuyo. According to E. U. Aye, "The missionary made no effort to introduce Christianity into the plantations because he was not allowed to do so by Efik rulers who suspected the Christian dogma as a disruptive influence among the lower orders against the existing Ekpe plutocracy."[8] Through the intervention of Eyo Ephraim Adam, Christianity was introduced into Akpabuyo. The foundation was first laid at Ikot Uba where Eyo introduced the Presbyterian Church and then at Ikot Nakanda.[9] Through his efforts in spreading the Christian faith, the missionaries received a large number of Christian adherents. The Christian religion permeated through villages such as Esuk Mba, Ifondo, Nkakat Ikot Akiriba, Ikot Eneyo, Akwa Obio Inwang Nsidung, Ikot Mbakara, Ekpene Tete and several other villages.[8]
Standing back row : Edet Efiong Otu, Esien Ekpe Hogan-Bassey, Eyo Ephraim Adam, Offiong Ekpenyong Eyo II, Okon Efio Efana. Standing second row : Ekei Ephraim Adam, Enian Esien, Efa Etim Efa, Umo Ephraim Adam, Ekpenyong Nkana, Ekeng Efana, Harold Duke Henshaw. Sitting : Asuquo Ekpenyong Oku, Ani Eniang Offiong, Bassey Duke Ephraim, Daniel Henshaw, Asuquo Ekpenyong Nsa, Rev Itam Itam Okpo, Efiong Ekpenyong Oku. Foreground: George Duke Henshaw, Ekpenyong Ekpenyong Eyo II.

Etubom Eyo was a politically active member of the Efik society. He was president of the Efik National Society in 1905 and was also a member of the Old Calabar judicial council from 1902 together with his brothers Ekei Ephraim Adam and Umo Ephraim Adam.[10][11] Other members of the Old Calabar Judicial included Prince Bassey Duke Ephraim, Ani Eniang Offiong, George Duke Henshaw, Esien Ekpe Hogan-Bassey and several others.[11] Within the Ekpe society of Old Calabar, Etubom Eyo held the title of Obong Mboko. His Children included, Edidem Bassey Eyo Ephraim Adam III, Eyo Eyo Ephraim Adam, Utong Eyo Ephraim Adam and several others.




  1. #refDuke2008|Duke, Great Calabar Chronicle, p.26
  2. #refHart1964|Hart, p.108
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 #refDuke2006|Duke, Three Famous Kings of Calabar, p.4
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named auto
  5. #refOku1989|Oku, p.219
  6. #refOku1989|Oku, p.100
  7. #refHart1964|Hart, para.320
  8. 8.0 8.1 #refAye1994|Aye, p.70
  9. #refAye1994|Aye, pp.98-99
  10. #refAkak1994|Akak, p.334
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Members of the Old Calabar Judicial Council (1902-1906)". Flickr.
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named auto1

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