European Union

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The European Union, known as the EU, is a political and economic union that is comprised of 27 member nations that are mostly situated in Europe. The union has a total landmass of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and is home to an approximate total population of 447 million people. A standardised set of laws that apply in all member states in those things, and only those matters, where the states have decided to operate as one has resulted in the establishment of an internal single market via the use of a standardised legal system. To ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market; to enact legislation in justice and home affairs; and to maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. These are the goals of the policies that are implemented by the EU. Within the Schengen Area, it is no longer necessary to present a passport in order to enter or leave the country. The 19 countries that are part of the European Union and use the euro to transact their daily business are members of the eurozone, which was founded in 1999 and began operating in its full capacity in 2002. The European Union (EU) is sometimes referred to as a sui generis political body, which means that it does neither have a predecessor nor can it be compared to anything else. The EU possesses the features of either a federation or a confederation.

When the Maastricht Treaty was finally ratified in 1993, it was the beginning of the union and the beginning of EU citizenship. The European Union (EU) may trace its roots back to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), both of which were founded by the Treaty of Paris in 1951 and the Treaty of Rome in 1957, respectively. Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany were the first nations to join what would later be known as the European Communities. These six countries make up what are known as the Inner Six. The communities and their successors have increased in size as a result of the incorporation of 21 additional member states, and they have also increased in authority as a result of the incorporation of policy areas under their competence. The Treaty of Lisbon, which brought about the most recent significant change to the constitutional framework of the EU, entered into effect in 2009. The United Kingdom was the sole member state that resigned from the European Union in the year 2020. Prior to this, four areas of nations that are still members of the EU left the EU or one of its predecessor organisations. There are a number of other nations that are engaged in discussions to become members of the European Union.

The European Union (EU) had a population of around 5.8 percent of the world's total population in 2020[c] and had produced a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $17.1 trillion in 2021, which represented nearly 18 percent of the total nominal GDP of the whole planet. According to the United Nations Development Programme, all of the nations that make up the EU have a Human Development Index that is very high. The European Union (EU) was honoured with the Nobel Peace Prize in the year 2012. The union has established a role in both defence and international affairs as a result of its participation in the Common Foreign and Security Policy. It is represented in international organisations such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Seven, and the Group of Twenty (G7, G20), where it has permanent diplomatic representations. As a result of the European Union's growing clout on the international stage, a number of academics have begun to refer to it as a rising superpower.