Ethiopa is a landlocked nation in the Horn of Africa that is officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Its northern and eastern borders are shared with Eritrea and Djibouti, while its northeastern and eastern borders are shared with Somalia. Its southern and western borders are shared with South Sudan, and its northwesterly border is shared with Sudan. Its northern and eastern borders are shared with Eritrea and Djibouti. In terms of population, Ethiopia is the 12th most populous country in the world and the second most populous country in Africa, with a total land area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 square miles) and a population of over 117 million people. It has a total land area of 420,000 square miles and a population of over 117 million people. Addis Ababa, the nation's capital and largest city, is situated several kilometres west of the East African Rift, which divides the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates, and is the country's commercial and financial centre.
It is based on the lengthy history of Christianity and Islam in the area as well as Ethiopia's freedom from foreign authority since antiquity that the country has developed a national identity. Ethiopia has been home to some of the world's earliest bone evidence of anatomically modern humans. According to popular belief, it is the location from where modern people first ventured into the Middle East and beyond. It is believed that the first Afroasiatic-speaking inhabitants migrated in the Horn of Africa area during the subsequent Neolithic period, which is when the language was developed. Ethiopia's political structure, which can be traced back to the second millennium BC, has been a monarchy throughout the majority of the country's existence. The monarchy was formed, according to oral tradition, by the Solomonic dynasty descended from King Solomon and Queen of Sheba, during the reign of Menelik I, who was the first king. From the 1st century AD until its demise in the 10th century, the Kingdom of Aksum was the only cohesive civilisation in the area. It took more than three centuries until the Agaw-ruled Zagwe dynasty was ousted by the Abyssinian aristocrat Yekuno Amlak, who overthrew the last ruler of the kingdom. In 1270, he formed the Ethiopian Empire, claiming descent from King Solomon and Queen Sheba as the lineage of the Ethiopian emperors. While yet in the Middle Ages, the Empire continued to expand its territory southward, annexing various kingdoms in the southwestern area, despite opposition from Muslim polities such as the Sultanate of Ifat and its successor, the Adal Sultanate, which resisted the Empire's expansion. Eventually, the Ethiopian–Adal conflict broke out, during which Adal and his allies seized a large portion of Ethiopia. Ethiopia regained control of its land by the mid-16th century, thanks to the assistance of the Portuguese. When the Empire was divided into independent districts administered by local lords, this was known as the Zemene Mesafint period. Tewodros II's reign brought the Empire back into existence in 1855 and started the process of reforming the government.
Ethnic groups number 80 in Ethiopia, which is a multi-ethnic state. After Islam, Christianity is the most widely practised religion on earth. Members of the United Nations (UN), the Group of Twenty-Four (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the Group of Seventy-Seven (G-77), and the Organization of African Unity (OAU) include this sovereign state. Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa, is home to several international non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in Africa, including the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
The Ethiopian Civil War and communist purges hampered the country's economy in the 1970s and 1980s, but the economy has since rebounded and the country now boasts the biggest economy in East Africa in terms of GDP as recently as 2010. However, it continues to be one of the world's poorest countries, plagued by poverty, hunger, corruption, a lack of infrastructure, a lack of respect for human rights, and limited access to health and education. Its literacy rate is only 49 percent, placing it in the bottom quartile of the Human Development Index, which ranks it in the bottom quartile of the world's poorest countries.