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England is a nation that is a component of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It shares geographical boundaries with Wales to the west and with Scotland to the north, as well as with the rest of the United Kingdom. The Irish Sea is located northwest of England, while the Celtic Sea is located southwest of the country. The North Sea separates England from continental Europe to the east, while the English Channel separates England from continental Europe to the south. There are more than 100 smaller islands in this county, which spans five-eighths (58%) of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic and contains popular tourist destinations such as Cornwall, Devon, and the Isle of Wight.

It is thought that modern humans first settled in the area now known as England around 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period. However, England gets its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe that took its name from the Anglia peninsula and who settled in the area during the 5th and 6th centuries. Since the beginning of the Age of Discovery in the 15th century, when England became a united state, the country has had a major cultural and legal influence on the rest of the globe. Developed in England were the English language, the Anglican Church, and English law, which served as the foundation for the common law legal systems of many other countries throughout the globe. In addition, England's parliamentary form of governance has been extensively copied by other countries. During the 18th century, England's civilization underwent a transformation that resulted in the country being the world's first industrialised nation.

Low hills and plains dominate the landscape of England, particularly in the central and southern regions. However, there is highland and hilly terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and the Pennines) and in the west (for example, the Peak District) (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the biggest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and, previous to Brexit, the European Union. England's population of 56.3 million people accounts for 84 percent of the population of the United Kingdom. It is concentrated mainly around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, all of which developed as major industrial regions during the nineteenth century.

In 1707, the Acts of Union brought into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, which had been signed the previous year, and resulted in a political union with  England and Scotland, resulting in the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Kingdom of England, which had included Wales since 1535, was the last sovereign state to be abolished on that date. The Joined Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was formed in 1801, when the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (again via an Act of Union). On January 1, 1922, Ireland's Free State declared its independence from the United Kingdom, resulting in the latter's renaming as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.