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Bangladesh is a nation in South Asia that is officially known as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people living in an area of 148,560 square kilometres (57,360 square miles), making it one of the world's most densely populated countries. It has a land area of 148,560 square kilometres (57,360 square miles), making it one of the world's most densely populated countries. Bangladesh has land borders with India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. Bangladesh also shares maritime boundaries with India to the west, north, and east. As a result, it is divided from Nepal and Bhutan by the Siliguri Corridor in the north, and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the south. Dhaka, the nation's capital and biggest metropolis, serves as the country's economic, political, and cultural nerve centre. Chittagong, the country's biggest seaport and second-largest metropolis, is the country's largest city.

Bangladesh is the more populous and easternmost portion of the Bengal region, which includes India and Pakistan. According to the ancient Indian scriptures Rmyana and Mahbhrata, the Vanga Kingdom, which was one of the namesakes of the Bengal area and was a powerful maritime force, was a powerful naval power. During the ancient and classical eras of the Indian subcontinent, the region was ruled by a number of princes, including the Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela, who were all based on the territory. Under the reign of Ashoka, it was also a Mauryan province, as well. The principalities were famous for their international commerce, connections with the Roman world, the export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and the dissemination of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The principalities were also noteworthy for their relations with the Roman world. The Gupta Empire, the Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty, and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms to exist before the arrival of the Muslim conquests. It is believed that Islam was first introduced during the Pala Empire through trade with the Abbsid Caliphate. However, it was not until the Ghurid conquests led by Bakhtiyar Khalji, the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and the preaching of Shah Jalil in the north-east that it spread throughout the entire region. When the rich Bengal Sultanate was incorporated by the Mughal Empire in 1576, it was only for a short period of time that its reign was interrupted by the Sr Empire. Affluent Mughal Bengal, which accounted for 12 percent of global GDP in the late 17th century, waved the Proto-industrialization flag, showed signs of a possible industrial revolution, established relations with the Dutch and English East India Companies, and served as the starting point for the Anglo-Mughal War. It was under the control of the Nawabs of Bengal that the area became a semi-independent state in the early 1700s, after the deaths of Emperor Aurangzb lamgir and Governor Shista Khun. Sirj ud-Daulah, the last Nawab of Bengal, was defeated by the British East India Company in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and the whole area was ruled by the British East India Company by 1793.