Template:Cite web

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Citation Style 1 templates
{{Cite arXiv}}arXiv preprints
{{Cite AV media}}audio and visual media
{{Cite AV media notes}}AV media liner notes
{{Cite bioRxiv}}bioRxiv preprints
{{Cite book}}books and chapters
{{Cite citeseerx}}CiteSeerX papers
{{Cite conference}}conference papers
{{Cite encyclopedia}}edited collections
{{Cite episode}}radio or TV episodes
{{Cite interview}}interviews
{{Cite journal}}academic journals
{{Cite magazine}}magazines, periodicals
{{Cite mailing list}}public mailing lists
{{Cite map}}maps
{{Cite news}}news articles
{{Cite newsgroup}}online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}}podcasts
{{Cite press release}}press releases
{{Cite report}}reports
{{Cite serial}}audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}}signs, plaques
{{Cite speech}}speeches
{{Cite ssrn}}SSRN papers
{{Cite techreport}}technical reports
{{Cite thesis}}theses
{{Cite web}}web sources not covered by the above
See alsoSpecific-source templates
Wrapper templates

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for web sources that are not characterized by another CS1 template.

Usage

Copy a blank version to use. Almost all parameter names are supported only in lower case (some initialisms, such as |isbn= have upper case aliases like |ISBN=, which are acceptable for use). Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Unused parameters may be deleted to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples on this documentation page may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format

For references with author credit

{{cite web |url= |title= |last= |first= |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}

For references without author credit

{{cite web |url= |title= |author=<!--Not stated--> |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}
Most commonly used parameters in vertical format
{{cite web
 |url=
 |title=
 |last=
 |first=
 |date=
 |website=
 |publisher=
 |access-date=
 |quote=}}
Full parameter set in horizontal format
{{cite web |url= |url-access= |title= |last= |first= |author= |author-link= |last2= |first2= |author2= |author-link2= |date= |year= |orig-year= |editor-last= |editor-first= |editor= |editor-link= |editor2-last= |editor2-first= |editor2-link= |editors= |department= |website= |series= |publisher= |agency= |location= |page= |pages= |at= |language= |script-title= |trans-title= |type= |format= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |access-date= |url-status= |archive-url= |archive-date= |via= |quote= |ref= |postscript=}}
Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes
{{cite web
 |url=
 |url-access=
 |title=
 |last=
 |first=
 |author-link=
 |last2=
 |first2=
 |author-link2=
 |date=
 |year=
 |orig-year=
 |editor-last=
 |editor-first=
 |editor-link=
 |editor2-last=
 |editor2-first=
 |editor2-link=
 |department=
 |website=
 |series=
 |publisher=
 |agency=
 |location=
 |page=
 |pages=
 |at=
 |language=
 |script-title=
 |trans-title=
 |type=
 |format=
 |arxiv=
 |asin=
 |bibcode=
 |doi=
 |doi-broken-date=
 |isbn=
 |issn=
 |jfm=
 |jstor=
 |lccn=
 |mr=
 |oclc=
 |ol=
 |osti=
 |pmc=
 |pmid=
 |rfc=
 |ssrn=
 |zbl=
 |id=
 |access-date=
 |url-status=
 |archive-url=
 |archive-date=
 |via=
 |quote=
 |ref=
 |postscript=}}
 
 
 
 
 
last
 
last
last2
 
 
 
 
 
editor-last
 
editor-last
editor2-last
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
url 
url 
url, archive-date
archive-url
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
required
 
required
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column, it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Choosing between Template:cite web and Template:cite news

Script error: No such module "anchor". Before 2014, editors had to decide whether to use {{cite web}} or {{cite news}} based on their features. In 2014, most of the differences between the two templates were eliminated.

As of 29 July 2016, Script error: No such module "Tlg". and Script error: No such module "Tlg". have the following differences:

  • Script error: No such module "Tlg". can be used for offline (paper) sources whereas Script error: No such module "Tlg". generates a missing URL error when no URL is provided
  • Script error: No such module "Tlg". accepts |issue= and |volume= parameters while Script error: No such module "Tlg". does not (See Help:Citation Style 1 § Pages; see also {{cite magazine}}).

But given the same set of valid parameters, their output is exactly the same:

cite web: Silverman, Dwight (July 15, 2011). "Microsoft envisions a universal OS, but it might not be called Windows". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
cite news: Silverman, Dwight (July 15, 2011). "Microsoft envisions a universal OS, but it might not be called Windows". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved May 26, 2015.

Examples

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |publisher=Open Publishing |date=April 30, 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=October 25, 2020}}
Doe, John (April 30, 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=25 October 2020}}
Doe, John (30 April 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=2020-10-25}}
Doe, John (2005-04-30). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |access-date=25 October 2020}}
Doe, John. "My Favorite Things, Part II". Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |access-date=2020-10-25}}
"My Favorite Things, Part II". Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  • {{cite web |url=https://operations.nfl.com/the-rules/nfl-rules-digest/ |title=NFL Rules Digest |website=NFL Football Operations |publisher=[[National Football League]] |access-date=October 25, 2020}}
"NFL Rules Digest". NFL Football Operations. National Football League. Retrieved October 25, 2020.

Using "format="

When this template detects a link whose URL includes an extension of ".pdf" or ".PDF", typical of PDF files, it automatically displays a PDF icon after the link (regardless of whether the link goes to a PDF file or to an HTML landing page, typical of paysites). It also internally acts as if |format=PDF had been specified, which displays " (PDF)" after the icon. (In this case, an explicit |format=PDF parameter would be redundant, so it is not recommended to add it. Users may remove it. Citation bot, when invoked, will remove it. (ref))

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.indiapost.gov.in/Pdf/Customs/List_of_Psychotropic_Substances.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |publisher=International Narcotics Control Board |access-date=25 October 2020}}
"List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. Retrieved 25 October 2020.

If the link is to a PDF file that is not automatically recognizable by its extension, this template does not display the PDF icon. You may add the parameter |format=PDF, which displays " (PDF)" after the link.

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.sample.com/somePDFdocument.000 |title=Some PDF Document |publisher=Sample Int'l |format=PDF |access-date=25 October 2020}}
"Some PDF Document" (PDF). Sample Int'l. Retrieved 25 October 2020.

For links to files in other formats, no icon is displayed. For example, for an .odt file, you may add the parameter |format=ODT, which displays " (ODT)" after the link.

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.sample.com/someODTdocument.odt |title=Some ODT Document |publisher=Sample Int'l |format=ODT |access-date=25 October 2020}}
"Some ODT Document" (ODT). Sample Int'l. Retrieved 25 October 2020.

Foreign language and translated title

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Honi soit qui mal y pense |last=Joliet |first=François |date=30 April 2005 |access-date=25 October 2020 |language=French |trans-title=Shame on those who think evil of it}}
Joliet, François (30 April 2005). "Honi soit qui mal y pense" [Shame on those who think evil of it] (in French). Retrieved 25 October 2020.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Using author-link

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |author-link=John Doe |publisher=Open Publishing |date=April 30, 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=October 25, 2020}}
Doe, John (April 30, 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. Retrieved October 25, 2020.

Multiple authors

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Our Favourite Things |last1=Doe |first1=John |last2=Smith |first2=Peter |last3=Smythe |first3=Jim |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopaedia of Things |access-date=25 October 2020}}
Doe, John; Smith, Peter; Smythe, Jim (30 April 2005). "Our Favourite Things". Encyclopaedia of Things. Open Publishing. Retrieved 25 October 2020.

No author

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |publisher=Open Publishing |date=2005-04-30 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=2020-10-25}}
"Index of Sharp Things". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. 2005-04-30. Retrieved 2020-10-25.

No author, no publisher

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=25 October 2020}}
"Index of Sharp Things". Encyclopedia of Things. 30 April 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=April 30, 2005 |access-date=October 25, 2020}}
"Index of Sharp Things". April 30, 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=2020-10-25 |language=Greek}}
"List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF) (in Greek). 2005-04-30. Retrieved 2020-10-25.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Using "archive-url" and "archive-date" (and optionally "url-status") for webpages that have been archived Script error: No such module "anchor".

By default, if "archive-url" is used, |url-status=dead and the main link is to the archive:
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=2020-10-25 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050907150136/http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |archive-date=2005-09-07}}
"List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). 2005-04-30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-09-07. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
With |url-status=live, the main link is to the original:
  • {{cite web |url=http://joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi?archive=currnews&story=20060405-01shore.htm |title=Interview with Maggie Downs |date=March 31, 2006 |publisher=The Desert Sun |url-status=live |archive-url=http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:JAxf4v-pQmgJ:joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi%3Farchive%3Dcurrnews%26story%3D20060405-01shore.htm |archive-date=April 26, 2006}}
"Interview with Maggie Downs". The Desert Sun. March 31, 2006. Archived from the original on April 26, 2006.
With |url-status=unfit or usurped, the original is not linked at all:
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.wunderground.com/global/stations/03772.html |title=London, United Kingdom Forecast: Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport) |publisher=The Weather Underground |access-date=25 October 2020 |url-status=unfit |archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/5yo0HaAk7 |archive-date=19 May 2011}}
"London, United Kingdom Forecast: Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport)". The Weather Underground. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)

Using quote

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/c.html |title=Daylight saving time: rationale and original idea |website=WebExhibits |date=2008 |access-date=25 October 2020 |quote=...&nbsp;Lord Balfour came forward with a unique concern: 'Supposing some unfortunate lady was confined with twins&nbsp;...'}}
"Daylight saving time: rationale and original idea". WebExhibits. 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2020. ... Lord Balfour came forward with a unique concern: 'Supposing some unfortunate lady was confined with twins ...'

Parameters

Syntax

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.).

COinS

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline". As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc., should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters

Note: This table of metadata is displayed for all Citation Style 1 templates. Not all of these parameters are supported by every CS1 template. Some of these parameters are mutually exclusive, some are aliases of another parameter, and some require other parameters to be present. Please refer to each template's documentation for a full list of supported parameters, their aliases, and their dependencies.

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publication-place=, |publicationplace=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=, |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |institution=
  • |url=, |chapter-url=, |chapterurl=, |contribution-url=, |contributionurl=, |section-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |first#=, |given#=
  • any of the named identifiers: |isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc.

What's new

What's new or changed recently
Parameter New or changed param
|sbn= identifier parameter for Standard Book Numbers
|s2cid= identifier parameter for Semantic Scholar corpus ID
|s2cid-access= access-icon parameter for |s2cid=

Deprecated

{{#lst:Help:CS1 errors|deprecated_params_table}}

Description

Authors

  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn, but not the other way around). Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline". Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s).
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn, but not the other way around). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Title

Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".

  • title: Title of source page on website. Displays in quotes. If script-title is defined, title holds a Romanization of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc); follows Romanization defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
{{bracket|text}} {{pipe}}Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".
This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • website: Title of website; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics. Aliases: work
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source. May alternatively be used to identify the type of manuscript linked to in the title, if this is not the final version of a manuscript (e.g. if a preprint of a manuscript is freely available, but the version of record is behind a paywall). Format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, Accepted manuscript, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: The language (or a comma-separated list of the languages) in which the source is written, as either the ISO 639 language code (preferred) or the full language name. Examples: |language=ru;, |lang=fr, pt-br; |lang=Russian; |language=French, Portuguese. See the list of supported codes and names. Do not use templates or wikilinks. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. When the only source language is English, no language is displayed in the citation. The use of languages recognized by the citation module adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources. Because cs1|2 templates are often copied from en.wiki to other wikis, use of language codes is preferred so that language names render in the correct language and form: español at a French-language wiki instead of the English word "Spanish". Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".

Date

  • date: Date of referenced source. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

Script error: No such module "anchor".

For no date, or "undated", use |date=n.d.
Automatic date formatting: Citation Style 1 and 2 templates, including this template, automatically render dates in date parameters (|date=, |access-date=, |archive-date=, etc.) in the style specified by the article's {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} template. See those templates' documentation for details.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of |date= is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    2. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays in square brackets after the date (or year). For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904. Alias: origyear}}
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates; overrides the automatic date formatting described above. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
  1. Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".

Website

  • work (required by {{cite journal}} and {{cite magazine}}): Name of the work containing the source; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website. Use Latin script. For languages written in non-Latin based scripts (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Indic, Japanese, Korean, etc.) use a standard Romanization in this field.
    • script-work: Work title in its original, non-Latin script; not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in work. Must be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script. Leave empty for Latin-based scripts (Czech, French, Turkish, Vietnamese, etc.). Aliases: script-journal, script-newspaper, script-magazine, script-periodical, script-website.
    • trans-work: English translation of the work title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after work or script-work. Aliases: trans-journal, trans-newspaper, trans-magazine, trans-periodical, trans-website.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters in the same citation:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display (and will produce an error message).

Publisher

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a website, book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, etc.). Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc.", or "GmbH" are not usually included. Not normally used for periodicals. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title.
  • place: For news stories with a dateline, that is, the location where the story was written. In earlier versions of the template this was the publication place, and for compatibility, will be treated as the publication place if the publication-place parameter is absent; see that parameter for further information. Alias: location
  • publication-place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the publication place; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. If only one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, it will be treated as the publication place and will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), or if the deliverer requests attribution. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".
  • agency: The news agency (wire service) that provided the content; examples: Associated Press, Reuters, Agence France-Presse. Do not use for sources published on the agency's own website; e.g. apnews.com or reuters.com; instead, use work or publisher. May be wikilinked if relevant.

Series

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

In-source locations

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |nopp=y. If hyphenated, use {{hyphen}} to indicate this is intentional (e.g. |page=3{{hyphen}}12), otherwise several editors and semi-automated tools will assume this was a misuse of the parameter to indicate a page range and will convert |page=3-12 to |pages=3{{ndash}}12.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |nopp=y.
    Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate because individual page numbers contain hyphens, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use double parentheses to tell the template to display the value of |pages= without processing it, and use {{hyphen}} to indicate to editors that a hyphen is really intended: |pages=((3{{hyphen}}1{{ndash}}3{{hyphen}}15)). Alternatively, use |at=, like this: |at=pp. 3-1&ndash;3-15.
    • nopp: Set to y, yes, or true to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover or |pages=passim.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

Script error: No such module "anchor".URL

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication named by title can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline". Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon; use |isbn= or |oclc= to provide neutral search links for books. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is required for online sources, such as personal websites, that do not have a publication date; see WP:CITEWEB. Access dates are not required for links to published research papers, published books, or news articles with publication dates. Note that access-date is the date that the URL was found to be working and to support the text being cited. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction with {{use dmy dates}} and {{use mdy dates}}. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived snapshot of a web page. Typically used to refer to services such as Internet Archive Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline"., WebCite Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline". and archive.is Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".; requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by |url-status=live) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Archive-service snapshot-date; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink; templated dates are discouraged. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction with {{use dmy dates}} and {{use mdy dates}}. Alias: archivedate.
      • url-status: this optional parameter is ignored if archive-url is not set. If omitted, or with null value, the default value is |url-status=dead. When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |url-status=live; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |url-status=unfit or |url-status=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but |url= and |archive-url= are still required).
      • archive-format: File format of the work referred to by archive-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after the archive link. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".
    • url-access: Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".
    • template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error-checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into one of the subcategories of Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated. Alias: no-cat.
  • format: File format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".

URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.

If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:

sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7b %7c %7d

Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.

  1. 1.0 1.1 Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".

Anchor

  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: the citation's HTML anchor identifier, when different from its default. When set, |ref=ID generates an anchor with the given ID (the id= attribute in the citation's <cite id="ID"> HTML tag). Setting |ref=ID identifies the template as a target and allows wikilinking to full references, especially useful with short-form citations like shortened notes and parenthetical referencing. The default anchor ID is suitable for use with {{sfn}} and {{harv}} templates. Since April 2020, the parameter / keyword pair |ref=harv has no special meaning; |ref=harv may be removed from existing cs1|2 templates. To inhibit anchor ID creation, set |ref=none. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".

Identifiers

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable. For example, |id=NCJ 122967 will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as |id={{NCJ|122967}} to append NCJ 122967 instead.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. |rfc=822 or |pmc=345678.

When an URL is equivalent to the link produced by the corresponding identifier (such as a DOI), don't add it to any URL parameter but use the appropriate identifier parameter, which is more stable and may allow to specify the access status. The |url= parameter or title link can then be used for its prime purpose of providing a convenience link to a free-to-read copy of the source that would not otherwise be obviously accessible.[1]

  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: arXiv identifier; for example: |arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or |arxiv=0706.0001 (April 2007 – December 2014) or |arxiv=1501.00001 (since January 2015). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html". Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support". value is a digit, use Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".. Because this link favours one specific distributor, include it only if standard identifiers are not available. Example |asin=B00005N5PF. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
    • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: au, br, ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it, mx. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: bioRxiv id, a 6-digit number at the end of the biorXiv URL (e.g. 078733 for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or https://dx.doi.org/10.1101/078733). Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. 10.1.1.176.341 for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341). Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.). Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
    • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at https://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |eissn=1557-2986. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet; example |hdl=20.1000/100. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline". Hyphens in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, use Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
    • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: In very rare cases, actually used ISBNs (as printed on books) do not follow the standard checksum algorithm. In order to suppress the error message, the |ignore-isbn-error=true parameter can be used to disable the checksum check in these cases. If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the ISBN instead of overriding the error message. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: International Standard Music Number; for example: 979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |issn=2049-3630. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Script error: No such module "lang".; example |jfm=53.0144.01. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: JSTOR reference number; for example: |jstor=3793107. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case; example |lccn=2004042477. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Mathematical Reviews; example |mr=630583. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: OCLC; WorldCat's Online Computer Library Center; example |oclc=9355469. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value; example |ol=7030731M. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Office of Scientific and Technical Information; example |osti=4367507. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: PubMed Central; use article number for open repository full-text of a journal article, e.g. |pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
    • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Date that Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support". goes live; if this date is in the future, then Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support". is not linked until that date. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: PubMed; use unique identifier; example |pmid=17322060 Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline". Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Request for Comments; example |rfc=3143. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Standard Book Number; example |sbn=356-02201-3. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Social Science Research Network; example |ssrn=1900856. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Semantic Scholar corpus ID; example |s2cid=37220927. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..
  • Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support".: Script error: No such module "lang".; example |zbl=0472.53010 For zbMATH search results like JFM 35.0387.02 use |jfm=35.0387.02. Aliases: Script error: No such module "cs1 documentation support"..

Quote

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include terminating punctuation.

Editors

  • editor-last: surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: This parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last), or the name of an editorial committee. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editorn-last, editor-surnamen or editorn-surname; editorn-first, editor-givenn or editorn-given; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...|editor-last1=... |editor2=....
    • editor-link: title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |veditors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • editors: free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged; not an alias of editor-last
  • Display:
    Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
    If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
    If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

Laysummary

  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Alias: layurl.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the lay summary. Displays in italics and preceded by a spaced endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the lay summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.
    • lay-format: File format of the work referred to by lay-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after lay summary. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. Script error: No such module "Hatnote inline".

Display options

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask:
  • contributor-mask:
  • editor-mask:
  • interviewer-mask:
  • translator-mask:
    Replaces the name of the (first) author with em dashes or text. Set <name>-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set <name>-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". The numeric value 0 is a special case to be used in conjunction with <name>-link—in this case, the value of <name>-link will be used as (linked) text. In either case, you must still include the values for all names for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. Mask parameters can take an enumerator in the name of the parameter (e.g. |authorn-mask=) to apply the mask to a specific name.
  • display-authors:
  • display-editors:
    Controls the number of author or editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of names, set display-authors and/or display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation (and not affect the display of editors). Likewise, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors (and all authors). |display-authors=0 and |display-editors=0 are special cases suppressing the display of all authors or editors including the et al. By default, all authors and editors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors, displayeditors, respectively.
  • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to y, yes, or true. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Additional text or templates beyond the terminating punctuation may generate an error message. |postscript= is ignored if quote is defined.

Subscription or registration required

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability § Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors should signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation. Script error: No such module "lang".: access icons do not display correctly for editors who use Modern skin.

Four access levels can be used:

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access indicators for url-holding parameters

Sources linked by |url=, |article-url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |entry-url=, |map-url=, and |section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read.[1] When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these url-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as free.

url-holding and access-indicator parameters
url access allowed keywords
|url= |url-access= registration Free registration required
limited Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required
subscription Paid subscription required
|article-url= |article-url-access=
|chapter-url= |chapter-url-access=
|contribution-url= |contribution-url-access=
|entry-url= |entry-url-access=
|map-url= |map-url-access=
|section-url= |section-url-access=
Access indicator for named identifiers

Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as limited, registration, or subscription.

named-identifier and access-indicator parameters
identifier access allowed keywords
|bibcode= |bibcode-access= free Freely accessible
|doi= |doi-access=
|hdl= |hdl-access=
|jstor= |jstor-access=
|ol= |ol-access=
|osti= |osti-access=
|s2cid= |s2cid-access=

Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named-identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:

  • |arxiv=
  • |biorxiv=
  • |citeseerx=
  • |pmc=
  • |rfc=
  • |ssrn=

TemplateData

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly parameter usage report for this template.

TemplateData for Cite web

<templatedata> { "description": "Formats a citation to a website using the provided information such as URL and title. Used only for sources that are not correctly described by the specific citation templates for books, journals, news sources, etc.", "params": { "url": { "label": "URL", "description": "The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type \"http://...\" or maybe even the protocol relative scheme \"//...\"", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "URL" ], "required": true, "example": "https://www.metacritic.com//..." }, "title": { "label": "Title", "description": "The title of the source page on the website; will display with quotation marks added. Usually found at the top of your web browser. Not the name of the website.", "type": "string", "required": true }, "date": { "label": "Source date", "description": "Full date when the source was published; if unknown, use access-date instead; do not wikilink", "type": "date", "suggested": true }, "access-date": { "label": "URL access date", "description": "The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink", "type": "date", "aliases": [ "accessdate" ], "suggested": true }, "website": { "label": "Name of the website", "description": "Title (name) of the website (or its short URL if no plain-language title is discernible); may be wikilinked; will display in italics. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' is redundant in many cases.", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "work" ], "suggested": true, "example": "Rotten Tomatoes" }, "publisher": { "label": "Publisher", "description": "Name of the publisher; may be wikilinked. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' (a.k.a. 'work') is redundant in many cases.", "type": "string", "example": "\"CBS Interactive\", which owns \"Metacritic.com\"" }, "last": { "label": "Last name", "description": "The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors", "aliases": [ "last1", "author", "author1", "author1-last", "author-last", "surname1", "author-last1", "subject1", "surname", "author-last", "subject" ], "type": "line", "suggested": true }, "first": { "label": "First name", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors", "aliases": [ "given", "author-first", "first1", "given1", "author-first1", "author1-first" ], "type": "line", "suggested": true }, "authorlink": { "label": "Author link", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author-link", "subjectlink", "subject-link", "authorlink1", "author-link1", "author1-link", "subjectlink1", "author1link", "subject-link1", "subject1-link", "subject1link" ] }, "last2": { "label": "Last name 2", "description": "The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author2" ] }, "first2": { "label": "First name 2", "type": "line", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink." }, "authorlink2": { "label": "Author link 2", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author2-link" ] }, "others": { "label": "Others", "description": "Used to record other (non-author) contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'. Only one others parameter is allowed: e.g., 'Illustrated by Jane Doe; Translated by John Smith'", "type": "string" }, "year": { "label": "Year of publication", "description": "Year of the source being referenced; deprecated in favor of 'date', except for the special case of ISO dates with CITEREF in CS2 or Harvard citations", "type": "string" }, "orig-year": { "label": "Original year", "description": "Original year of publication; provide specifics", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "origyear" ] }, "editor-last": { "label": "Editor last name", "description": "The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "editor1-last", "editor", "editors" ] }, "editor-first": { "label": "Editor first name", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "editor1-first" ] }, "editor-link": { "label": "Editor link", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors", "aliases": [ "editor1-link" ], "type": "wiki-page-name" }, "series": { "label": "Series identifier", "description": "Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal", "type": "string" }, "location": { "label": "Location of publication", "description": "Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'", "type": "string" }, "publication-place": { "label": "Place of publication", "description": "Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'", "type": "string" }, "publication-date": { "label": "Publication date", "description": "Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink", "type": "string" }, "page": { "label": "Page", "description": "Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'", "type": "string" }, "pages": { "label": "Pages", "description": "Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source); displays after 'pp.'", "type": "string" }, "nopp": { "label": "No pp", "description": "Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')", "type": "string" }, "at": { "label": "At", "description": "May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient", "type": "string" }, "language": { "label": "Language", "description": "The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name or one of the standard MediaWiki language codes; do not use icons or templates; separate multiple languages with commas (with no 'and' before the last one)", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "lang" ], "example": "de, fr, es" }, "script-title": { "label": "Script title", "description": "For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...", "type": "string" }, "trans-title": { "label": "Translated title", "description": "An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended", "type": "string" }, "type": { "label": "Type", "description": "Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case", "type": "string" }, "format": { "label": "Format", "description": "Format of the work referred to by 'url'; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML", "type": "string" }, "arxiv": { "label": "arXiv identifier", "description": "An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers", "type": "string" }, "asin": { "label": "ASIN", "description": "Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters", "type": "string" }, "asin-tld": { "label": "ASIN TLD", "description": "ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US", "type": "string" }, "bibcode": { "label": "Bibcode", "description": "Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters", "type": "string" }, "biorxiv": { "label": "biorXiv", "description": "biorXiv identifier; 6 digits", "type": "line" }, "citeseerx": { "label": "CiteSeerX", "description": "CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter", "type": "line" }, "doi": { "label": "DOI", "description": "Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'", "type": "string" }, "doi-broken-date": { "label": "DOI broken date", "description": "The date that the DOI was determined to be broken", "type": "string" }, "isbn": { "label": "ISBN", "description": "International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible", "type": "string" }, "issn": { "label": "ISSN", "description": "International Standard Serial Number; 8 characters; may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen", "type": "string" }, "jfm": { "label": "jfm code", "description": "Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code", "type": "string" }, "jstor": { "label": "JSTOR", "description": "JSTOR identifier", "type": "string" }, "lccn": { "label": "LCCN", "description": "Library of Congress Control Number", "type": "string" }, "mr": { "label": "MR", "description": "Mathematical Reviews identifier", "type": "string" }, "oclc": { "label": "OCLC", "description": "Online Computer Library Center number", "type": "string" }, "ol": { "label": "OL", "description": "Open Library identifier", "type": "string" }, "osti": { "label": "OSTI", "description": "Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier", "type": "string" }, "pmc": { "label": "PMC", "description": "PubMed Center article number", "type": "string" }, "pmid": { "label": "PMID", "description": "PubMed Unique Identifier", "type": "string" }, "rfc": { "label": "RFC", "description": "Request for Comments number", "type": "string" }, "ssrn": { "label": "SSRN", "description": "Social Science Research Network", "type": "string" }, "zbl": { "label": "Zbl", "description": "Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier", "type": "string" }, "id": { "label": "id", "description": "A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable", "type": "string" }, "archive-url": { "label": "Archive URL", "aliases": [ "archiveurl" ], "description": "The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archive-date'", "type": "string", "suggested": true }, "archive-date": { "label": "Archive date", "aliases": [ "archivedate" ], "description": "Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink", "type": "date", "suggested": true }, "archive-format": { "label": "Archive format", "description": "Format of the archived copy; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML", "type": "string" }, "quote": { "label": "Quote", "description": "Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; must include terminating punctuation", "type": "string" }, "ref": { "label": "Ref", "description": "An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv template", "type": "string" }, "separator": { "label": "Separator", "description": "The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark", "type": "string", "default": "." }, "postscript": { "label": "Postscript", "description": "The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined", "type": "string", "default": "." }, "layurl": { "label": "Lay URL", "description": "URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'", "type": "string" }, "laysource": { "label": "Lay source", "description": "Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash", "type": "string" }, "laydate": { "label": "Lay date", "description": "Date of the summary; displays in parentheses", "type": "string" }, "author-mask": { "label": "Author mask", "description": "Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead", "type": "string" }, "last3": { "label": "Last name 3", "description": "The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author3" ] }, "first3": { "label": "First name 3", "type": "line", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink." }, "authorlink3": { "label": "Author link 3", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author3-link" ] }, "last4": { "label": "Last name 4", "description": "The surname of the fourth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author4" ] }, "first4": { "label": "First name 4", "type": "line", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth author; don't wikilink." }, "authorlink4": { "label": "Author link 4", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author4-link" ] }, "last5": { "label": "Last name 5", "description": "The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author5" ] }, "first5": { "label": "First name 5", "type": "line", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink." }, "authorlink5": { "label": "Author link 5", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author5-link" ] }, "last6": { "label": "Last name 6", "description": "The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author6" ] }, "first6": { "label": "First name 6", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "authorlink6": { "label": "Author link 6", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author6-link" ] }, "last7": { "label": "Last name 7", "description": "The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author7" ] }, "first7": { "label": "First name 7", "type": "line", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink." }, "authorlink7": { "label": "Author link 7", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author7-link" ] }, "last8": { "label": "Last name 8", "description": "The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author8" ] }, "first8": { "label": "First name 8", "type": "line", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink." }, "authorlink8": { "label": "Author link 8", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author8-link" ] }, "last9": { "label": "Last name 9", "description": "The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.", "type": "line", "aliases": [ "author9" ] }, "first9": { "label": "First name 9", "type": "line", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink." }, "authorlink9": { "label": "Author link 9", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "author9-link" ] }, "author-name-separator": { "label": "Author name separator", "description": "Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark", "type": "string", "default": ", " }, "author-separator": { "label": "Author separator", "description": "Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark", "type": "string", "default": "; " }, "display-authors": { "label": "Display authors", "description": "Number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used. By default, all authors are displayed. Examples: |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation followed by et al. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al.", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "displayauthors" ] }, "last-author-amp": { "label": "Last author ampersand", "description": "When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "lastauthoramp" ] }, "editor2-last": { "label": "Editor last name 2", "description": "The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor2" ], "type": "line" }, "editor2-first": { "label": "Editor first name 2", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor3-last": { "label": "Editor last name 3", "description": "The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor3" ], "type": "line" }, "editor3-first": { "label": "Editor first name 3", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor4-last": { "label": "Editor last name 4", "description": "The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor4" ], "type": "line" }, "editor4-first": { "label": "Editor first name 4", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor5-last": { "label": "Editor last name 5", "description": "The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor5" ], "type": "line" }, "editor5-first": { "label": "Editor first name 5", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor6-last": { "label": "Editor last name 6", "description": "The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor6" ], "type": "line" }, "editor6-first": { "label": "Editor first name 6", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor7-last": { "label": "Editor last name 7", "description": "The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor7" ], "type": "line" }, "editor7-first": { "label": "Editor first name 7", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor8-last": { "label": "Editor last name 8", "description": "The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor8" ], "type": "line" }, "editor8-first": { "label": "Editor first name 8", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor9-last": { "label": "Editor last name 9", "description": "The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.", "aliases": [ "editor9" ], "type": "line" }, "editor9-first": { "label": "Editor first name 9", "description": "Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.", "type": "line" }, "editor2-link": { "label": "Editor link 2", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor2link", "editorlink2" ] }, "editor3-link": { "label": "Editor link 3", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor3link", "editorlink3" ] }, "editor4-link": { "label": "Editor link 4", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor4link", "editorlink4" ] }, "editor5-link": { "label": "Editor link 5", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor5link", "editorlink5" ] }, "editor6-link": { "label": "Editor link 6", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor6link", "editorlink6" ] }, "editor7-link": { "label": "Editor link 7", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor7link", "editorlink7" ] }, "editor8-link": { "label": "Editor link 8", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor8link", "editorlink8" ] }, "editor9-link": { "label": "Editor link 9", "description": "Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.", "type": "wiki-page-name", "aliases": [ "editor9link", "editorlink9" ] }, "subscription": { "label": "Subscription required", "description": "Use 'url-access' instead", "type": "string", "deprecated": true }, "registration": { "label": "Registration required", "description": "Use 'url-access' instead", "type": "string", "deprecated": true }, "edition": { "label": "Edition", "type": "string", "description": "Specify the edition or revision of the source, when applicable. For example: '2nd' or '5.1'. What you supply here is suffixed by ' ed.'" }, "url-access": { "label": "URL access level", "description": "Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')", "type": "string" }, "bibcode-access": { "label": "Bibcode access level", "description": "If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "doi-access": { "label": "DOI access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "hdl-access": { "label": "HDL access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "jstor-access": { "label": "Jstor access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "ol-access": { "label": "OpenLibrary access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "osti-access": { "label": "OSTI access level", "description": "If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.", "type": "string" }, "authors": { "label": "Authors list", "description": "List of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, \"lastn\" to \"firstn\" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.", "type": "string", "aliases": [ "people", "host", "credits" ] }, "via": { "label": "Published via", "description": "Name of the entity hosting the original copy of the work, if different from the publisher. This entity is committed not to alter the work. GitHub, SourceForge, CodePlex, YouTube, Vimeo, Dailymotion and Netflix are examples of service dedicated to acting on behalf of the publisher, but Archive.org, Wikimedia Commons and grc.com have done this on certain occasions.", "example": "\"GitHub\", which hosts \"Visual Studio Code\" on behalf of \"Microsoft\"", "type": "string" }, "url-status": { "label": "URL status", "description": "If set to 'live', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live. Set to \"dead\" or 'usurped' for broken links. Entering 'unfit' or 'usurped' makes the original link not appear at all.", "example": "'dead' or 'live'", "type": "string", "default": "'dead' if an Archive URL is entered", "autovalue": "live", "suggested": true } }, "maps": { "citoid": { "title": "title", "url": "url", "subject": "title", "publicationTitle": "website", "blogTitle": "website", "forumTitle": "website", "seriesTitle": "website", "websiteTitle": "website", "publisher": "publisher", "date": "date", "PMCID": "pmc", "PMID": "pmid", "oclc": "oclc", "pages": "pages", "series": "series", "accessDate": "access-date", "DOI": "doi", "language": "language", "contributor": "others", "author": [ [ "first", "last" ], [ "first2", "last2" ], [ "first3", "last3" ], [ "first4", "last4" ], [ "first5", "last5" ], [ "first6", "last6" ], [ "first7", "last7" ], [ "first8", "last8" ], [ "first9", "last9" ] ], "editor": [ [ "editor-first", "editor-last" ], [ "editor2-first", "editor2-last" ], [ "editor3-first", "editor3-last" ], [ "editor4-first", "editor4-last" ], [ "editor5-first", "editor5-last" ], [ "editor6-first", "editor6-last" ], [ "editor7-first", "editor7-last" ], [ "editor8-first", "editor8-last" ], [ "editor9-first", "editor9-last" ] ] } }, "paramOrder": [ "last", "first", "authorlink", "last2", "first2", "authorlink2", "last3", "first3", "authorlink3", "last4", "first4", "authorlink4", "last5", "first5", "authorlink5", "last6", "first6", "authorlink6", "last7", "first7", "authorlink7", "last8", "first8", "authorlink8", "last9", "first9", "authorlink9", "authors", "author-mask", "author-name-separator", "author-separator", "display-authors", "last-author-amp", "date", "year", "orig-year", "editor-last", "editor-first", "editor-link", "editor2-last", "editor2-first", "editor2-link", "editor3-last", "editor3-first", "editor3-link", "editor4-last", "editor4-first", "editor4-link", "editor5-last", "editor5-first", "editor5-link", "editor6-last", "editor6-first", "editor6-link", "editor7-last", "editor7-first", "editor7-link", "editor8-last", "editor8-first", "editor8-link", "editor9-last", "editor9-first", "editor9-link", "others", "title", "script-title", "trans-title", "url", "url-access", "url-status", "archive-url", "archive-date", "archive-format", "access-date", "website", "series", "publisher", "location", "page", "pages", "at", "language", "type", "format", "publication-place", "publication-date", "via", "nopp", "arxiv", "asin", "asin-tld", "bibcode", "biorxiv", "citeseerx", "doi", "doi-broken-date", "isbn", "issn", "jfm", "jstor", "lccn", "mr", "oclc", "ol", "osti", "pmc", "pmid", "rfc", "ssrn", "zbl", "id", "quote", "ref", "postscript", "subscription", "registration", "separator", "layurl", "laysource", "laydate", "edition", "bibcode-access", "doi-access", "hdl-access", "jstor-access", "ol-access", "osti-access" ], "format": "inline" } </templatedata>

See also

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.

  1. 1.0 1.1 This guidance does not restrict linking to websites that are being used as sources to provide content in articles.